About the company that created PageMaker. The program, which in the late ‘ 80s “sold Mac”.
Start with repentance. In the article “About “the Apple”-7. In 1985, the LaserWriter and PageMaker,” the story about Paul Brainerd, the founder and head of Aldus, me the inaccuracies, which may cause readers ‘ misconceptions on the causes of the events described.
Paul Brainard received a degree in journalism from the University of Oregon, and Minnesota. After graduation, he worked for several years in the newspaper Minneapolis Star & Tribune, and not a journalist, and technician.
Sometimes in the case of something happening like for no reason at all – but much less than considered, and usually only from the point of view of an outside observer.
Aldus: the beginning
In 1980, Paul Brainard entered the firm Atex, independently mastered programming. Atex was engaged in computerization of various aspects of publishing. The experience he had, the work was well paid and he was doing exactly what his heart desired. Found themselves in it, like-minded people and thought about how we would fix in the processing chain of the publishing industry.
If in 1983 Atex was acquired by Eastman Kodak and if the result of the optimization was not closed the plant in Redmond, Washington, where he worked Floor, Apple Computer would have to search for to write something similar to PageMaker for someone else, and what would that do, who knows? Maybe the result would have been even better, although the probability of such an outcome is close to zero.
Paul refused an offer of moving to another part of the country, a similar venture Atex. The failure was not accidental: he didn’t want to leave the Northwest, it is one of the most unusual places in the United States. In addition, he and colleagues had the idea that, in addition to their obvious usefulness and market demand, were still quite capable.
The closure of the plant worked as a shot gun start. Maybe, like many other media ideas, Paul and his companions would not have had the resolve to drop everything and go in solo flight.
Once told Steve jobs, “the crisis is a good time for something to change”. Paul Brainard and some of his colleagues decided to stay in Washington and to implement a plan to establish a company.
And even chose her name – Aldus. In honor of the Venetian printer, who lived on the border of XV-XVI centuries, Manutius Aldus (1449-1515).. Anyone interested in the details about Signora Manutius, see the “Aldus of the XV-XVI centuries” at the end of the article.
Then held a historic meeting of Paul Brainard with Steve jobs, during which Steve showed Macintosh, and Paul saw that this is exactly what is needed for the conversion of the idea of his team in reality. The program was agreed to write exclusively for Mac. For starters, what it is, I think, silent.
On 1 February 1984, after meeting Paul Brainard with Steve jobs in Seattle, Washington, was a registered Corporation Aldus.
Apparently a month left to adapt to the environment Macintosh and final details of the task. Development began in March. For strategic reasons, the project had to be completed in 12 months to PageMaker was released in conjunction with the LaserWriter.
But in March 1985 PageMaker was not ready to meet users. He was released with a delay of 4 months. As said by S. P. Korolev, when the user asked to do something unrealistic to deadline: “If you do something quickly, but bad, all very quickly forget that you did it quickly, but will long remember what you did is bad”. He said that when he was not yet the sentence is cleared. When went over the edge…
Information about any serious problems PageMaker pages of computer then publications and publishing subjects no. Only rave reviews. All very quickly forgot that the first version of the program came too late.
The test of copper pipes
It is believed that this is the most difficult of all tests, of which almost none of our species does not go with honor.
Soon Mac and bought in order to gain access to the capabilities of PageMaker. Apple Computer also did not stay aside, promoting Aldus and PageMaker all available large company means: frequent mention of PageMaker in advertising, including television.
In April 1986, the Corporation released PageMaker 1.2, and by the way, informed the audience about the sales, which reached $ 10 million. Stupidly dividing this amount by the price of a single copy of the program, will receive “more than 20 thousand copies.” For the serious professional programs, and even in those days – very good.
Something very important is different from Aldus Apple Computer and many startups kindergarten stage in the development of the personal computer industry. Aldus created and operated by people with a technical bent of mind, sober and rational. They tried, as soon as it became real, to eliminate dependence on a single platform.
In the computer press in those days was raging the serious things: about the terrible destructive effects of < erase>GMO< / negate> GUIs, graphical user interfaces, warned hundreds of authors, authoritative and with a degree prestigious degrees. Something, by the way, they even were right, maybe… the World is much stupid for the time elapsed since then.
However, many of the industry leaders (Microsoft, IBM and even DEC) quickly created a GUI for their own platforms. Analogue PageMaker (and many other crucial for humanity program products) outside the GUI is simply impossible. Have space to grow.
In October 1986, negotiations and consultations with Aldus, Hewlett-Packard and Microsoft on joint development of desktop publishing for the IBM PC ended with a sensational public announcement of the ambitious intentions of these three companies. In developing such a system, the company invested $ 2 million, consist of this system was of Aldus PageMaker for the PC (Windows), MS Word and HP LaserJet.
Probably, Apple Computer all this is not very much, but PageMaker continued to boost sales of Macs and proud company-the billionaire ignored the news.
According to various sources, the release of PageMaker for the IBM PC took place in October 1986, not in December, not all in July 1987. In fact, the truth set is not too difficult: PageMaker 2.0, the first version of the program with options for both Mac and Windows, was released in January 1987.
Since the first version of Microsoft Windows was not a success, and deservedly so, complete with pisishnym PageMaker supplied a full copy of Windows 1.0.3. Starting in may of the same year, instead of the full version was delivered already the runtime environment (runtime) for Windows, allows you to use MS DOS only PageMaker.
To the “triple Alliance” joined Wang Laboratories and Digital Equipment (DEC), and soon PageMaker was sold to Wang personal computers and workstations VAX. And PageMaker, in spite of everything, continued “to sell Mac”.
Mac and cost more the Mac was more difficult to buy (not believe – but it is, to organize production, able to quickly and adequately respond to the demands of the market, Apple are only after the “second coming” of Steve jobs, the late 90s). Mac was not such as all. But all these disadvantages outweigh the other: it is this weird platform has become the standard of desktop publishing, because everyone else was worse at least until the late 90s.
For the second year of life Aldus has earned 18,4 million dollars. Almost two times more than in the first year.
Aldus XV-XVI centuries
Aldous, or ALD, Manutius (Aldus Manucius, his name was written differently in different years: Latin Mannucius and Manutius, almost Latin Manutio and purely Italian Manuzio, read it all almost identical), was born in 1449-m, died in 1515-m.
Famous Aldous many innovations: first in the world to create the most real publishing, Alda, which lasted over a hundred years, invented the “pocket” format of the books and style of italic (in Italian is called corsivo corsivo italico and aldino, from the last and going on the English name of the italic – italic), this style was designed for more dense compared to the “normal” style, placing the letters on the pages that was necessary to “pocket” books, in octavo.
First engaged in the standardization rules of punctuation, this initiative has brought to the finale of his grandson, Aldous Second. It is in vain, right?
Aldous Manutius – alias. Real name, apparently, Teobaldo Mannucci. Handwriting Aldous, it is found in well-preserved old papers. The conclusion that this is the real name of the printer suggests. But still it is nothing more than a guess. Suddenly it attempts the invention of another alias, or just the name of some other person?
To be continued.