It so happened that Claris has played in the fate of HyperCard fatal role. But before I talk about this accidental murder, it’s impossible not to talk about the Claris is a very interesting company, the fate of which happened even more tragic.
It is bad when the company has no feedback from its customers. But, as history has shown Apple Computer, thoughtless fulfillment of desires of the customers worse thousands of times.
Even if clients are software developers that the company is not less than the air.
In 1986 the last century, Apple Computer began to think about splitting the company into two. One of them is specialized on the development and promotion of computers, becoming something “like IBM”. The second was to develop software, becoming a second Microsoft. And, of course (it they want), to compete with this Microsoft.
Any thoughtful analysis of this crazy idea, I think that in those days, in ours, would not have left the idea of a stone. But Apple, as it seemed, were forced by circumstances of force majeure! Will customers, even two that contradict one another. Developers and consumers, bringing to the company a large part of the income.
After much consideration (!!!) this decision and after some discussion, in 1987, Apple Computer did. A newborn company called Claris. While a new company will rise on feet, Apple Computer its “temporarily adopted”. Took under his wing.
The head of the company has appointed bill Campbell, who wanted to steer yourself.
We come into this world naked and helpless. Mac came in exactly the same. The computer may be retarded, stupid, and even disgust, but if it > is not needed (at least games), and they continue to use it, he lives.
The developers of the Mac, the first Mac-native programmers in the world, knew about the complexity of creating programs for the newborn too well. It was an unusual system in which there were too many rules and mandatory requirements to get comfortable with them and start to create, it required time. Equipment and tools needed to develop Mac’ovskih programs were expensive.
But mastering the software interface Macs (hostile to the programmer, and this is not my definition) and the presence of expensive equipment in any case not lead to a quick solution of the problem: good software is written for a long time. And in the words of Ernest Hemingway, “what is written without effort is read without pleasure” – this applies to the software. To a much greater extent than literature.
So the first few programs for the Mac wrote its developers. Apple Computer have included them in the scope of delivery of the first Macs. It was MacWrite and MacPaint.
The release of the first Mac was written by another program, WriteNow. Jobs, apparently, not without reason, feared that MacWrite will not have time to write by January 1984, and (unknown when exactly) organized the development of competing apps in Seattle. But MacWrite was released in time, and WriteNow (project Steve jobs paid them for personal money) was put on the market only in 1985, on behalf of the NeXT Software. A detailed description of this program (the best word processor for Mac) to our subject do not apply. Which is a pity.
MacWrite and MacPaint was fantastically good, and most importantly – free. Supplied on two 400K-floppy disks, together with every Mac’om. In such dvukhtochechnoi trainer for office workers.
And there was universal happiness? Users draw and print, programmers write their programs great, using MacWrite and MacPaint as an example, Apple Computer does not prevent them, does the operating system and developer tools…
There it was!
Tops cannot, bottoms do not want
Rose universal op. Mac native programmers, which was very little, suddenly has accused Apple Computer in that, with its MacPaint and MacWrite are unable to compete, and that Apple developers use some secret unpublished API, causing the considerable damage to the social group of “independent native Mac developers”.
Apple Computer fought back, denying the existence of secret ingredients for her, but, as expected, excuses only added fuel to the fire. Seems to be no one who dared to write software for Macs, that went to other platforms (although who knows?). Perhaps the level of discontent has been exaggerated.
A reason to be nervous at first independent Mac developers ovskih was, but those who so loudly about the inability to compete with MacPaint and MacWrite, and are unable to leave a mark in the history of the development of the software.
Those who are seriously rolled up their sleeves and worked Mac ovsky (and his own) future, were too busy to participate in the discussions. “Yeah, not bad – but we can do better” sounds nicer to the ear.
Users were also dissatisfied. MacPaint and MacWrite, in their opinion, too rarely updated, slowly developed, errors in these programs is not corrected (which can be fix without releases?), and they are also frightened Apple Computer his departure to other platforms.
Directly revolutionary situation. From the definition of this situation, V. I. Ulyanov-Lenin: “tops cannot, bottoms do not want”. So the title of section I “bags”.
Steve, when he talked about these issues, rolled her eyes and was silent. Or, if it spoke to someone from respected any of the people that commented on obscene words. He was right.
Propagation is by division, with a completely incomprehensible (in my opinion) consequences, should have been:
- to give a detailed guide to programming on a Mac all the suffering, at first. That already, and it was free, was done. The first three volumes of Inside Macintosh, printed in a single 1000 page volume “without any frills”, was sent to developers until the release of these three volumes by the publisher Addison-Wesley;
- to organize technical support for developers. Was done;
- to think about reducing the cost of the minimum developer, at least making the development tools are free, providing equipment to rent on favorable terms, etc. – did not go for it, “the toad strangled”. Discounts were but mocking.
Just wait it out.
Maybe it was worth to feed some of the most promising projects, secretly (wouldn’t understand the rest), and then widely advertise their success. Even without feeding, in 1984, was written hundreds of software products for the Mac, which sell their developers know how much worse than writing great software. So they didn’t complain! And help in this matter would cost a lot cheaper than tearing the company to pieces.
Those who are not able to compete with the few that are already there, just need to change jobs.
About releases and bugs in General is ridiculous. Users are always unhappy. In an extreme case would be tightened and released in a row a couple of releases.
And most importantly – this revolutionary situation has resolved itself, but without the headache happened in real history. With time.
A brief history of Claris Inc, onset (childhood?)
In 1987 Apple Computer was created a Corporation Claris Inc, an affiliated company, but in a press release announced plans to make it independent and to help with the IPO (primary public offering of shares) Claris.
The office has placed Claris in Santa Clara, CA, 6 miles (9.5 km) from the office of Apple. Nowadays this building is “granddaughter” Apple Computer, the company’s subsidiary, FileMaker Inc. About “granddaughter”, just in case, let me explain: it was a joke. The same daughter, but with a different name.
The company conveyed, for frequent release updates, MacProject, MacDraw, MacWrite and MacPaint. And word processor for Apple II, AppleWorks, hit. And was immediately released an update for all software. The name for all programs added “II”, replaced the Apple logo on the logo Claris and began to promote them and sell.
MacProject – development company, Solosoft, apparently consisting of one person, Debra, Willet. Transfer for Mac app LisaProject, the first application for project management and their implementation with a graphical user interface. In MacProject for the graphical display of projects were used, in addition to Gantt charts, network diagrams. The program calculated the critical path, in case of violation of schedules or lack of resources counted with the end date of the project. I could tell about this program a lot, but… probably enough.
MacDraw is a vector drawing tool, the heir LisaDraw, both programs were developed by mark cutter. In MacDraw II has made important changes: color support and features of the Mac II. The further fate unknown Brand cutter (many developers refused to move to Claris, because went to work at Apple), Claris the team who worked on MacDraw, headed Shuten Gerard (Gerard Schuten), the other two members of this team – Amy goldsmith and Marjorie Kaptanoglu.
These programs were less known, but popular, despite the fact that not came with Mac th, and sold. The number of purchased copies are inferior to MacPaint and MacWrite, for obvious reasons.
Despite parting ways with Apple (now all were members of Claris), the company reigned typical Apple attitude. The morale of the company was very high. However, a bit bothered remaking foreign programs instead of developing their own, the coolest and best in the world. By common efforts, the company has created a cult of quality. From now on, all Claris programs must be perfectly clean from bugs and the most beautiful.
Do you remember what lined the road to hell?
And finally, in childhood all like to give nicknames to yourself and friends. Employees Claris called his company BCIUS. It stands for “Bill Campbell Inherits Used Software”. That is, “bill Campbell (the head company) inherits a second-hand software.”
In the same 1987, just before the start of Claris, Apple Computer has appointed ovskogo known Mac Evangelist guy Kawasaki head of ACIUS, the us office of a French company ACI, developer of fantastic DBMS with a fantastic name 4D (the Fourth dimension).
Hence BCIUS. Perhaps Campbell and Apple’s Board of Directors for such status the company didn’t like, in 1988, everything became much more interesting…
About HyperCard, fortunately just forgotten. The leadership of the Apple Computer was not before, it is thinking about passing Claris operating system development…