People at all times have worshipped jewelry. Stones and metals are not just conquered their minds, but also became the cause of wars. Some were ready for them to give life and take it away. What kind of jewelry was almost always the most valuable? Of course, gold and diamonds. They have become even a household name in its category. With gold increasingly less clear. It is mined, smelted, and so forth, but what is the path a diamond takes from the first shovel stuck in the ground at the field, to the Royal crown — is a big question. Moreover, the gold at all times was extracted plus or minus the same can not be said about diamonds. There really is where carousing and develop in terms of technology.
Where are the diamonds
First, let’s generally understand, where are the diamondsand how they appear in the depths of our planet. If you already familiar with it or this is not very interesting, just scroll to the next item.
Diamond is the hardest mineral in the world. There are even the so-called Mohs scale, which is often used to determine the hardness of objects. Most often lately, with this scale may be encountered in determining the stability of the smartphone’s screen to scratching. Without going into details, it consists of 10 steps at which the hardness corresponds to the hardness of different substances from talc to diamond. That is, the diamond is considered the standard hardness.
Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon and is considered one of the most expensive stones. Especially appreciated are the transparent stones with a slight tint of blue. The rest of the impurities considered married, but sometimes is also evaluated very highly.
The main places in which diamonds are formed, are such areas of the continents, where for a long time is not happening any geological activity. This process occurs at great depth, about 100 to 200 kilometers. This depth is selected based on the conditions which it created.
The temperature at this depth reaches 1,500 degrees Celsius, and the pressure often crosses over around 40,000 atmospheres. Such pressure and temperature may so change the crystalline structure of carbon to make the stone on the verge of fantasy.
Artificial diamonds in laboratories get with the 60-ies of the last century. In recent experiments on the production of diamonds when you create pressure by directed explosion. But it's more like some kind of alchemy. Although formally some small particles of diamond are really formed.
We must say that no one will not go to such depths to mine diamonds, because over billions of years they gradually come to light. They do this, vinasas to the surface by kimberlite magma. And formed primary deposits of diamonds.
The definition of ”kimberlite pipes” appeared once in the province of Kimberley in southern Africa was discovered the first tube. They were called kimberlite , a rock that contains diamonds, kimberlite.
Now in the world there are thousands of kimberlite pipes, but not in all places, diamond mining cost-effective. Places where there really meaning to do it, in the world only a few dozen.
The extraction of diamonds
Countries in which many diamonds are strongly scattered by its level of economic development, social sphere, religion, and so on. However, they are lucky to be in those places where the mining of diamonds really makes sense.
Countries where diamonds are extracted
- Russia — 40,32 million carats per year
- Congo — 23,20 million carats per year
- Botswana — 20,50 million carats per year
- Australia — 13,96 million carats per year
- Canada — 13.3 million carats per year
- Angola — 8.7 million carats per year
- South Africa — 8.3 million carats per year
In Russia, where diamonds are extracted
- Arkhangelsk oblast
- Murmansk oblast
- Perm Krai
How to find diamond deposits
Have diamond fishing one big problem. At the time the exploration was conducted in a secret mode. That is why it is still not known all the ways of determining their occurrence. Of course, there are modern methods, but those who are engaged, still in no hurry to share secrets, since at stake is a lot of money.
Most likely to find diamonds is in the area extinct a long time ago the volcanoes. There very often creates a ”natural laboratory” in which all the conditions for the cultivation of these minerals and deliver them to the surface.
Also diamonds can be found in area of river channels, which are igneous rocks. And great attention should be paid to the meteorites in areas falling which too often are diamonds.
How diamonds are extracted
The biggest challenge when mining diamonds is that to obtain them it is necessary to process tons of ore. It is usually assumed that one ton of rock contains an average of 1-2 carats (0.2-0.4 grams) of diamonds, the size of which is reduced when cut.
Sometimes the diamond mining is possible even manually and often this method is available in Africa. But, as a rule, have to work more thoroughly and spend significantly more extensive excavation. In General, the technology is somewhat reminiscent of the washing of the gold, the only question is, how much minerals is in the rock and in what area they are ”scattered”.
The most simple and inexpensive method of mining is open. First, remove the top layer of soil, and then the pit gradually deepened by the collapse of its walls directed explosions. Breed take away mining trucks in mining and processing plant (GOK). There is processing ore.
Often craters sink into the ground thousands of feet, and their area is comparable to area towns.
The second method is much more difficult to implement and is said to be closed. In this case, drilled shafts, in which production is carried out. First, it is necessary to use complex equipment for drilling (in contrast to the simple and relatively cheap explosions), and secondly, there is no space to maneuver as when you just ”dig a hole” and getting it out of the ground.
Mine are used in cases, when using the open method it is impossible for one reason or another. They are drilled to a depth of up to a kilometer (sometimes longer), after which the rock rises up and so goes to the mining companies.
When development in an open way is impossible and careers continue to not expand, mine starts production. Mine are drilled vertical and inclined, and the step between them must not exceed a hundred meters. So the work continues as long as there is economic benefit.
The work on the extraction of diamonds is conducted in three shifts for 7 hours and never stops, and to ensure that fisheries are often built next to the mining towns with all the infrastructure, including hospitals, shops, sports facilities and even airports. Because it is often only possible to get to such places.
How it works mining plant
In order to handle the breed and to find the diamonds dump trucks thousands of tons per day are dumped at the ore special factories. There the ore goes through a different system of crushing and grinding. Often they differ from each other, but the whole point is to break the rock into small stones, then sift it to size in the roar (special machine for sifting) and subjected to further processing.
Large pieces of rock are washed with water in order to get diamonds, and small exposed to the action of special reagents that literally pull the diamonds from the rock. Waste rock undergoes additional testing rentgenofluorestsentnogo separation. The fact that the diamonds glow on x-ray. This property is used to check the quality of the breed. The slightest flash fixed automation, and rock blown off with the tape. Then it is sent for additional verification.
When the diamonds collected, among them still have impurities, and then starts manual labor. They are sorted manually by removing even the slightest extra stones. Then the diamonds are checked and sorted by a huge number of options to go on a special exchange, where they will buy jewellers for further processing and use in jewelry.
A diamond is different from diamond
Many people confuse these two words, but they distinguish the extracted mineral from the finished works of jewelry art. In that moment, when the mineral is in the ground, the body dump truck or in the warehouse in anticipation of the cut, he is a diamond. After it processed, it becomes a diamond.
Not many know that diamonds can be broken, if it's really hard to hit it. They are split into parts by planes parallel to the faces of the regular octahedron. That is the structure it has. Roughly speaking, it breaks ”at the seams”.
The word diamond in translation from French ”brillant” means ”brilliant”. That’s what he becomes after treatment, and the treatment involves coating the surface of the stone 57 or 58 facets. They refract light and give the stone the glow for which it is so appreciated.
The classic cut is exposed about 75 percent of diamonds sold in the world. This form consists of the following elements:
- The crown (upper part)
- The girdle (the widest part)
- The pavilion (lower part)
Despite the fact that the diamond itself would be beautiful, even when defects are cut, and to recognize a marriage can only be a specialist, it uses a special technique. The right cut of diamond masters study for many years and they have correct proportioning of the cut.
If a cut is different from the classical form or fancy, it is divided into two types. If you do not go to details, it is more close to round or, conversely, closer to the elongated form.
The most famous diamonds
The Diamond Kohinoor
Without a doubt, today the most famous diamond in the world is ”Kohinoor”. In Farsi it means ”Mountain of light”. Legend has it that its first owner was a boy, which appeared several thousand years before Christ, near the river Yamuna. This was no ordinary child but a creature of the Sun-Karna. The stone was a decoration of his embroidered cap.
In its history the stone saw a lot of blood and change its owner until it was part of the British crown. Now he is in the castle tower and safely guarded. Many say that the only decent price for this stone is the life of someone who wants to receive it.
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The Diamond “Tiffany”
In 1877 in the Kimberly found the diamond, which became the world’s largest yellow diamond. His weight was 287 carats, and sold it for 18 000 dollars — unprecedented for those times the money. Bought stone of Charles Tiffany. The cut took almost two years, and as a result the stone took the form of a quadrangle and shone 89 facets.
In the end, the stone decorated the showcase store on Fifth Avenue in new York. The first person who was able to feel it on my body — the star of the film ”Breakfast at Tiffany’s” Audrey Hepburn. After that, a diamond with an unusual cut and frame in the form of diamond birds got to the auction but was not sold. In the end, he became a symbol of the store ”Tiffany&Co”.
The Diamond “Black Eagles”
Another world-famous diamond called the ”Black eagles”. He was originally buried in one of the Indian graves, but the robbers were able to steal it. In the end, as legend has it, they brought the curse on themselves and all, in whose hands will get the stone.
To the victims of the stone is credited with the Countess Nadezhda Orlov and Princess Golitsyn. Also victims are usually attributed to J. Paris, who wanted to sell the stone in new York, but instead somehow jumped off the roof.
There are other famous diamonds, which brought many problems to their owners. And all because of the fact that they cost a lot of money, a symbol of power and simply enchanting brilliance that is ”crazy”. It is not necessary to give them a mystical sense, just understand human greed and desire for easy money, perhaps even at the cost of someone else’s life.