Astronomers have discovered a unique “wrong” neutron star

About 24 000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cassiopeia a astronomers have discovered a neutron star, whose existence can not explain none of the modern theories. The fact that the star ejects jets (a very powerful plasma flows moving with incredible speed), but it has a very strong magnetic field. According to modern theories, the ejection of jets from neutron stars is possible only if the strength of their magnetic fields 1000 times smaller than that detected. Discovery scientists described in the journal Nature.

When the life cycle of stars by mass, several times larger than the mass of the Sun coming to an end, they explode in a supernova, leaving a neutron star. These stars are characterized by extreme density and a very powerful force of gravity, while having a very small radius of the order of 10-20 kilometers. Neutron stars, like black holes capable of emitting the jets powerful streams of dispersed almost to light speed particles. Previously it was thought that neutron stars with very strong magnetic field can not create the jet, however the observation of astronomers under the leadership of van den Einden from the University of Amsterdam in the framework of the project ICRAR with a telescope and the VLA shows that this opinion was erroneous.

The object of the research was the star Swift J0243.6+6124 found in October 2017 the space telescope Swift. It is part of a binary system slowly rotates and draws on material from another companion star, according to the researchers, the much larger size of it of the Sun. The strength of its magnetic field 10 trillion times that of our sun.

During observation of the object using the telescope, the VLA, the scientists found that during the pulsations of the star comes not only x-ray, and radio emission. In addition, the brightness of the system in the radio started to wane, when it reaches the high x-ray radiation, and then its decline. Usually this behavior occurs in systems where there is a jet.

Modern theories suggest that the stream is accelerated to high velocities of particles starts by the magnetic field in the inner parts of the accretion disk. However, when a very strong magnetic field of the star, this field will suppress the birth of a jet, not allowing the matter of the disk to the stellar surface. However, the observations of scientists say that probably there are other mechanisms of formation of jets. According to one speculation, the formation of plasma flows may depend on the rotation of the neutron star, not on the strength of the magnetic field in the accretion disk, as is typical of other systems with neutron stars. Scientists believe that slowly rotating neutron stars jet would be weaker. At least, judging from the data of observations, such a feature is observed in the Swift system J0243.6+6124.

According to researchers, a neutron star Swift J0243.6+6124 may be representative of a whole class of similar objects. However, their radiation is too weak to be seen by scientific instruments of the current generation. Scientists believe that the same VLA will allow us to find other similar systems and to understand that how to form jets from neutron stars.

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