Scientists from the National astrophysics Institute of Italy in Bologna to announce the opening of the largest and the heaviest of the object of the early Universe – a huge superclusters of galaxies located 11 billion light-years away and appeared later, 2.3 billion years after the Big Bang. About the discovery of astronomers reported in the article of the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.
His discovery of Italian scientists have made during the observation of approximately ten thousands of ancient galaxies, comparable in size to the Milky Way and existed in the first two billion years after the Big Bang. In their research, astronomers hoping to understand what conditions could appear and how did the evolution of these objects.
Observations have shown that a fairly large portion of these galaxies (about 1 thousand) were concentrated in a relatively compact region of the constellation of the Sextant. Calculate the distance between them and analyzing their style of movement, the researchers realized that the observed objects are part of a giant cluster. Scientists call it “Hyperion” — in honor of one of the twelve titans of Greek mythology born of Uranus and Gaia.
Subsequent observation of the subject talked about the fact that the total mass of the supercluster is detected should be at least 270 trillion solar masses, making it comparable in size to the largest giant clusters of galaxies that are located “next door” to the Ground.
“We opened such a large concentration located at such a distance from us. All the known objects of this type, previously opened, is located in a more “modern” part of the Universe where they have had enough time for mass, and evolution. The opening of “Hyperion” was a big surprise to us,” explains astronomer Olga Cucciati from the National astrophysics Institute of Italy in Bologna.
According to modern concepts, the first galaxies appeared as a result of direct gravitational collision of giant clouds of gas, which in turn arose from the uneven distribution of matter due to gravitational “echo” in the process of ultra-rapid expansion of space after the Big Bang.
Some of the clouds formed a single galaxy, from other, larger, marked the beginning of the formation of tens or hundreds of galaxy groups, which subsequently merged into clusters and superclusters.
That the first galaxies appeared in the first billion years after the Big Bang had to be different from the later small size and mass, astronomers theorists said at the end of the last century. Recently, however, tells Cucciati, these assumptions are challenged. The grain of those doubts laid observations with modern ground and space telescopes, which help scientists began to discover all the more ancient and large galaxies appearing almost at the same time when the first stars came out, and the universe became completely transparent and available for observation.
According to the researchers, the discovered supercluster “Hyperion” from the more modern superclusters, distinguished by some peculiarities. For example, despite similar mass and size, “Hyperion” is quite different in their appearance on modern clusters. The latter have a more “branchy” and heterogeneous structure, which is not observed in “Hyperion”.
To explain why that is, scientists can not yet, but plan to investigate this in the near future using ground-based and orbiting telescopes.
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