Life on planet Earth came a little more than 3.5 billion years ago. Despite the fact that the process of its emergence lasted for thousands and millions of years, the appearance of the first living organisms has been a miracle for the Universe. Trying to comprehend prior to such a big event, people during its entire history of existence is already expressed huge number of different assumptions regarding the emergence and development of life on Earth. A new study by scientists from the University of Arizona develops a General theory of the origin and evolution of living things on the planet, using simple features that are common to all types. Such an unusual approach could help to lift the veil on the mystery, not giving rest of humanity for many thousands of years.
Whence came man?
Theories about how, where, and why there was a man occupied the minds of thinkers since the ancient times. One of the latest ideas about the origin of man was the study of Joseph Robbie Berger, postdoctoral in ecology and evolutionary biology at the Institute of the environment University of Arizona. The scientist believes that the analysis of specific features of living organisms are able to detect the General properties and quality, improvement of which is constantly running evolution. These specific traits, including timing of reproduction and death of an organism, called the history of the life of the body.
All species on Earth have evolved in order to multiply, grow, survive and replace a specific niche on the planet to the universal biophysical constraints. According to Berger, if you try to impose such restrictions on the mathematical model, some unifying patterns fall out from the General framework. According to an article published on the portal phys.orgone of such limitation is the demographics. Regardless of the total number of offspring produced over a lifetime, on average, only two individuals are capable to survive in order to one day replace the parents. Another limitation is the balance of mass and energy. The living beings of the planet release energy to maintain body growth and reproduction, which constantly needs to be balanced over the life cycle.
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The imposition of constraints in the course of development of living organisms explains the two fundamental compromise in the method of reproduction in organisms: a compromise between the number and size of offspring, and also between parental investment in offspring and its growth.
In order to come to a new understanding of how organisms allocate energy to growth, reproduction and survival, Berger and his colleagues have collected published data on the life history of various wild animals in stable populations. Scientists created a new theory of the origin and evolution of life on the planet, said old notions about trade-offs in life history of the organism. If such assumption was that the size and number of offspring increases or decreases with the same speed, in theory Berger these relationships are not as simple as it might seem. Include data on the demographic processes occurring within a given population in a structured researcher of the equation, scientists can develop useful tools for predicting the number of living organisms, noting existing ecosystem models and their possible changes in physical manifestations.