Since its inception, the pacemaker device implanted into the chest to maintain heart rate, acted as a pacemaker, that is, set the pace of cardiac contractions of the organs that can not do it yourself. But a healthy heart always beats with the same frequency, and depends on a amount of factors. And all of them can not account for a small pacemaker. But a neural network can do it. And it is a device for stimulation of the rhythm, which controls the neural network, and created by scientists from the University of Bristol.
How neural network helps in heart
The human heart is constantly changing the frequency of contractions. For example, it may accelerate during inhalation and decelerate during exhalation. This phenomenon is known as respiratory sinus arrhythmia and is considered normal for young people with a healthy heart. And there is also a physiological aspect. This increases the blood filling of the Atria.
Such devices must listen to what is needed by human body, says Julian Paton, Professor of the University of Bristol in the UK, and one of the authors. We need more intelligent medical devices. New smart pacemaker will be able to return the natural variability in heart rate, helping your body to work more effectively.
The device reads electric signals generated by each breath, and respectively transmits these data to the heart. In experiments with laboratory mice with heart failure, the device increased the amount of blood their hearts could pump by 20% compared to the monotonous cardioversion. On these developments, we regularly reported on our website. So subscribenot to miss the most important.
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Modern pacemakers adjust the heart rate in response to changes in the body relatively primitive means, such as accelerometers or detecting a rise in body temperature. Some devices can measure heart rate based on respiration. But these devices track the average breath for a certain period of time.
A device created by the British with the analog chip based on neural network developed at the University of Bath. In experiments on rats, the chip recorded the electrical activity of the diaphragm muscle of mice, which is reduced during inspiration. Chip interpreterpath signals transmitted in real time using the equations of Hodgkin-Huxley — is, roughly speaking, mathematical modeling, as initiated and propagated action potentials in the cells responsible for heart rhythm. After analyzing the data, the device begins electrical stimulation of the left atrium of the heart, making it beat in sync with the breath.
The advantage of using the analog of this approach is that the new device can quickly respond to changes in breathing, says Julian Paton. This gadget easily scales and can be reduced to the size of a postage stamp.
Scientists claim that in the next stage of human testing, the device will not have to record the signal from the diaphragmatic muscle. Instead, it will be possible to integrate the device in conventional pacemakers to measure respiration, recording electrical changes in chest impedance.