The twentieth of July 1969, exactly 49 years ago, the astronauts of the manned spacecraft “Apollo 11” were the first human landing the moon. Years of effort, dangerous experiments, grueling workouts and ambitious missions are not in vain. For the first time in the history of man landing on the surface of another celestial body, opening the way for subsequent manned missions to earth’s satellite. For this event in a live broadcast watched by millions of people around the world.
On the moon astronauts Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin Aldrin remained for 21 hours, 36 minutes and 21 seconds. Installing on the lunar surface an American flag, a set of scientific instruments and collecting samples of lunar soil, the crew went home. On the occasion of the 49th anniversary of the portal Space.com prepared photographic material to prepare for this historic space mission.
Pictured above, from left to right you can see the boosters AS-201, AS-202 and AS-203 launch of which was carried out in 1966 in preparation for the Apollo program. The launch of the first rocket carrier “Saturn 1B” AS-201 was performed from the spaceport at Cape Canaveral on 26 February 1966. Launch rocket “Saturn-1B” AS-202 was made on 25 August 1966. The launch of AS-203 was made on 5 July 1966. All three launches were unmanned. The main task consisted in working out command and service compartments in a suborbital flight.
The Crew Of “Apollo-1”
As the crew of the first Apollo was selected astronauts Virgil Ivan Grissom, Edward white and Roger Chaffee. The crew was killed on 27 January 1967 in a fire during the preparations for the first manned flight program “Apollo” during the month before the scheduled start.
Learning the way out
Training of the crew of “Apollo 1” on the basis of the United States air force Ellington in June 1966. In the foreground on an inflatable boat sits Edward white, from the module to the boat descends Roger Chaffee. Virgil Ivan Grissom sits in a module and waits for its turn.
Preparing for lunar gravity
Training Roger Chaffee training in the lunar landing complex. Using the simulator, reduced gravity, the scientists studied factors associated with the difference in gravity that had to wait until astronauts on the lunar surface.
The effects of fire
January 27, 1967 fire which took the lives of the first crew of “Apollo-1” has also suffered substantial damage module of the Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204). The probable cause of the tragedy was the spark or short-circuit in the wiring. The Commission, which conducted the investigation, has identified several potentially dangerous design of the vehicle. After the fire the fire spread very quickly and damaged the spacesuits of astronauts. The complex design of the hatch and locks did not allow the crew under the circumstances, rushed to open the hatch from the inside. The Board determined that the astronauts died from poisoning by combustion products in 14 seconds after the fire started.
The development of spacesuits
Specialist of the research center NASA Langley, Kenneth R. Jenni tries on one of the spacesuits developed for the mission “Apollo”.
The jumpsuit is designed to suit a mission “Apollo”, it was proposed to carry on the surface of the moon. Fitting carried out by one of NASA employees.
Test apparatus the lunar landing
Specialists of the research center NASA conducted tests of different versions of aircraft for testing of the lunar landings on Earth. The development of the first of the aircraft began in 1963. It instructed the company Bell Aerosystems.
The artist creates large, detailed image of the lunar surface on the basis of four photographs of the surface of the satellite for the simulation Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach or LOLA (simulator approximation to the lunar orbit and lunar landing). The cost of developing the simulator was 2 million dollars. He had to help the pilots landing modules to prepare for the lunar landing.
Work on the simulator LOLA
It shows how the pilot uses the LOLA simulator. The simulator is a makeshift cockpit, surrounded by system of a TV monitor that displays the picture of outer space and the moon. This method allowed the pilot to obtain near-real visual sense of approach to the lunar surface.
Preparation in full swing
Training of the crew of “Apollo 8” James Lovell, William Anders and Frank Borman. Composite image. In the photo below also shows the location of the astronauts inside the test simulator, which replicates the interior of a real spacecraft.
Simulation of the docking of the spacecraft was used for the preparation of astronauts of project Gemini. Later it was modified for training of astronauts of missions “Apollo”.
Simulator for training astronauts called “iron cross”. Allowed to simulate some load when landing, and maneuvering the spacecraft. Neil Armstrong in the photo uses the simulator as a pilot. Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong served for 7 years as a military fighter pilot and test pilot with the U.S. Navy.
The simulator lunar surface
April 22, 1969. The astronauts of mission “Apollo-11” pass training in conditions simulating the lunar surface. During the training shown in the pictures the astronauts practiced using a variety of tools for working on the lunar surface.
Astronaut Edwin “buzz” Aldrin training in zero gravity conditions aboard a KC-135 Stratotanker in preparation for the mission “Apollo 11”.
Underwater training Ken Mattingly 17 January 1970. The astronaut was preparing for a manned mission “Apollo-13”.
Exercise physical endurance
Astronaut Jim Lovell, the future commander of “Apollo 13”, is training on physical endurance in Kennedy Space center.
The lunar module
The exposition of the layout of the lunar module. The image composite. The pictures were taken during a night exercise at the “acclimatization” of astronauts inside the spacecraft “Apollo-11”.