Apples are among the most consumed fruit in the world. Their popularity is evidenced by the famous English proverb “an Apple a day keeps the doctor away”, counterparts of which exist in other languages. In English saying goes like this: an apple a day keeps a doctor away, and in Spanish as: una manzana al dia mantiene al doctor en la lejania. But whether or not apples are useful? Recently Swiss scientists estimate that one Apple contains more than 100 million bacteria. It is possible that after reading this article, your attitude to these fruits change slightly. The paper was published in the journal Frontiers in microbiology.
Apples represent an important source of various minerals, fiber, and minerals in the human diet. They also have a beneficial effect on health due to pectins, which help fight various cardiovascular diseases. However, Apple microbiome is less well known. Recently a group of scientists decided to calculate how much bacteria is contained in these fruits. The fact that raw vegetables and fruits are literally teeming with various micro-organisms and beneficial gut microbes. However, what bacteria and what their number is contained in the apples remained unknown.
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What part of Apple is the most useful?
To study the microbiome of apples scientists have chosen the sort of “Arles”. The researchers wanted to identify the differences between all the parts of an Apple: stem, skin, pulp and seeds, carefully studying them. Moreover, the purity of the experiment, the researchers studied two types of apples “Arles” — organically grown apples (without the use of pesticides and fertilizers) and grown in the traditional way. The results revealed that the stalk, peel, pulp and seeds are inhabited by different bacterial communities. Interestingly, pulp and seeds of fruits was bacterial “hot spots”, but the peel was less colonized.
On average, according to scientists, one Apple contains not less than 114 million bacteria. Although this number was the same, the bacterial composition was significantly different from 39 fruitproduced traditional and organic way. The researchers note that in apples grown in an organic way the number of bacteria is approximately the same as in the normal apples, but the composition of bacterial communities is different. Another advantage of organic apples were their more intense taste, the cause of which lies in the presence of methylobacteria in these fruits. The scientists also noted that those who eats a whole Apple entirely, leaving only the tail, get a lot more beneficial bacteria than those who eats only the pulp. No less interesting is the fact that a large number of microorganisms contained in the flowers and stems of Apple trees. The researchers note that the findings are consistent with a recent study in which the authors observed a specific microbiome mushrooms.
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An important task of future research is to further elucidate whether bacteria of food origin to affect the microbiome of the intestine. Further detailed study of the microbiome of apples and other products. The authors also reveal some limitations of the study, since it examined only one variety of apples.