We can assume that now diamonds are the best friends not only girls, but also scientists. However, one should not forget that a diamond is called a cut diamond, and in this article we will focus on the natural mineral. Student at the University of Alberta (Canada) discovered new, previously unknown, naturally occurring mineral inside the diamond. The diamond itself was found in a mine in South Africa. The mineral was named in honor of the founder of modern Geochemistry, Victor Moritz Goldschmidt.
What are the diamonds?
So, diamond is the hardest of all the natural minerals. It is mined from placer deposits, or so-called kimberlite pipes. First, these shiny stones are discovered by accident in Kimberley, South Africa in 1870. Since all the minerals of this rock called kimberlite. The largest diamond deposits are in Australia, Russia, Canada and Africa.
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Diamond is unique in that is composed mostly of one element — crystalline carbon, which has amazing properties. It is no secret that the diamond is high temperature melting, the high hardness and low friction coefficient. The value of this mineral is measured in special units, called carat. One carat is equal to 0.2 grams. As a rule, all diamonds have small weight, but some pebbles are larger.
So, the biggest diamond in the world was discovered in a South American mine Piner mine in 1905. The mineral was named Cullinan. Its mass is equal to 621,35 grams. Cullinan was presented to king Edward VII on his birthday. His Royal Highness instructed to divide the diamond. In the result, the Cullinan was divided into 2 large monolithic block, 7 medium pieces and about a hundred tiny.
Which mineral found in the Goldschmidt?
A study on the detection of diamond within the new mineral was published in the journal American Mineralogist. According to experts, he has an unusual chemical characteristic of the mineral from the Earth’s mantle. In Goldshmidt contains a high concentration of elements such as potassium, naobi, cerium and lanthanum. Thus, in the rest of the Earth’s mantle is dominated by quite other elements, such as magnesium and iron.
Experts agree that in order naobi and potassium is a component of the main part of the mineral, the diamond was formed by truly exceptional processes. According to the researchers, Goldschmidt formed at a depth of approximately 170 km, in temperatures that reached almost 1200 degrees Celsius.
To get more information about the chemistry of processesoccurring deep underground, scientists are concentrating on an incredibly small mineral inclusions within diamonds. In the end, it’s much easier than trying to break through the crust of the earth.
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Note that the present study is the work of an international group of scientists, which included mineralogists, technicians, and researchers from different universities. This discovery allows you to get an idea of the processes that occur deep beneath the surface of our planet and influence the process of formation of diamonds.