Most drugs are developed on the basis of tumor antigens (TSA). And their search begins with the study of peptides derived from protein-coding exons. However, as we found out, a group of researchers from Canada, such peptides it is possible to find in our organism and their source is “junk” DNA — the part of the molecule, which, as believed, did “not involved” in the processes of life.
To begin to understand how it works antitumor immunotherapy. The fact that our immune system is designed so that in theory he can destroy cancer cells and successfully does, after all, changes in cells happen all the time. But sometimes something “breaks” and the immune cells cease to notice the cancer cells, mistaking them for normal. In this case, the cells of the immune system need to help and make them again active against tumors. And recognition is due to the histocompatibility complexes on the cell surface. These complexes are composed of peptides. These peptides also need to “feed” the immune system, so he began again to fight. And these peptides helped to find “junk” DNA
According to the editors of the journal Science Translational Medicine, the development is a team at the University of Montreal led by Dr. Celine Lemont. Scientists have sequenced the entire DNA and RNA of the two lines of cancer cells. After that, they began the search of peptides. In the end, managed to find 14 and 7 (for each of the lines respectively) are potential candidates for the vaccine. While most of them were obtained because of the “junk” region of the molecule.
Further, the efficiency of the peptides was tested on laboratory mice with cancer. In the end, 3 of 5 of the selected peptide showed very good results and significantly extended the life of animals. Moreover, in the study of seven other cancer cell lines was discovered 22 more complex, also you can try to use. New method (if it proves effective in the long term) can be a good method for the treatment and prevention of neoplastic diseases.
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