Based on complex simulations of quantum chromodynamics, is made using the K computer, one of the most powerful in the world, HAL QCD Collaboration, scientists predicted the existence of a new type of “dibaryon” particles, containing six quarks instead of three. The study of such elements helps scientists to understand the interactions of elementary particles under extreme conditions, such as depths of neutron stars or the first moments of the Universe after the Big Bang.
The particles, known as baryons — the protons and neutrons consist of three quarks that are closely related to each other, and their charge depends on the “color” of quarks. Dibaryon — is essentially a system of two baryons. In nature, there is one known dibaryon — deuteron, the deuterium nucleus (heavy hydrogen) with a proton and neutron, which are very poorly connected. Scientists have been wondering, are there other dibaryon, however, have not yet found such.
In a paper published in Physical Review Letters, a team of scientists used a powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a “very strange” dibaryon, consisting of two “omega-baryons”, each of which contains three strange quarks. They called him “DJ omega”. It was also proposed to find those strange particles in experiments with heavy-ion collisions, scheduled in Europe and Japan.
The forecast was made possible by the coincidence of a combination of three elements: improved methods for calculating QCD, improved modeling algorithms and a more powerful supercomputers.
The first significant element was a new concept called “time-dependent method for HAL-QCD”: it allows scientists to determine the force acting between baryons, a large amount of numeric data collected using the computer K.
The second element is a new computational method, standardized compression algorithm, which allows for a more efficient count system with a large number of quarks.
The third element is the emergence of powerful supercomputers. Computer To allows you to make quick calculations of a large number of variables. But it took him almost three years to bring scientists to the conclusion about the existence of “DJ omega”.