When the planets revolve around the Sun, separated by a good distance, we think that they are not in contact and share material. The solar system can be a cruel place, where asteroids are falling and flying comets, but the planets themselves seem too big and massive, in order to participate. When large shocks affect the energy of your planet, the worst they can do — to make a hole, leave the crater and covering the world with dust and debris.
But sometimes, if the blow is strong enough, it can throw all the debris into space. Many of the moons in our Solar system, including Earth satellites, Pluto, and Mars — were created from the merger of the debris after a giant impact. Some of the debris fell back to the planet, the other remaining matter was thrown out of the planetary system as a whole.
Can a stone from one planet to get to another?
In theory, Yes, the material from one planet can be transferred to another.
In practice, we know that this is so. Pieces of Mars were found on Earth, and new ones fall on our world every few years.
The science of meteorites beautiful and interesting. More than 61 000 pieces of rocks of extraterrestrial origin was discovered on Earth. The solar system is a diverse and complicated place, and every body that ever fell on it or from which we took samples, something different from the others. Rocks on the surface of Venus different from those found on asteroids, comets, Mars and the Earth. In fact, they all differ in composition among themselves, as rocks that we saw on various satellites that were visited, like the satellite Titan of Saturn.
The only breed that, as far as we know, have similar structure — it rocks the earth and the moon. The similarity between earth rocks and lunar samples speaks in favor of the giant impact in the early history of the Solar system, which led to the appearance of the moon.
In the case of any stone on Earth, regardless of its origin, we can perform some of the elements on the periodic table it is, and what the ratio of isotopes of these elements.
For example, one of the noteworthy evidence that the great event of the extinction of 65 million years ago, began after the fall of the asteroid, this layer of ash, which is found worldwide, because of the ashes of that time contains 10 times more iridium in density than any rocks on Earth. For asteroids, it is quite natural, so we consider them to be the basic premise of the extinction of dinosaurs and the flourishing of mammals.
Objects that fall to Earth, however, are in a separate category. Instead of wandering in space, they travel through the Solar system and collide with our world, and many of them fall to the surface and leave marks. These meteorites are of different types. They have different densities, different compositions of elements and different geological features inside. Most meteorites are stony and contain small rounded particles, consisting mostly of silicon inside. These types of meteorites known as chondrites, and they account for 86% of all meteorites. Another 8% is stony, but without these melted particles of silicon inside: achondrite. 6% — iron meteorites, a mixture of stone and metal.
And though it includes all the meteorites that we have found ever, they are not created equal or even typical. Some of them even weird. Separately, there is three different types:
Shergottite: volcanic rock, rich in both magnesium and iron, with various sizes of crystals and minerals in and apparently crystallized recently, perhaps only 180 million years ago.
Nality: these much older, were formed between 1.3 and 1.4 billion years ago, is also in the process of volcanic activity. They are rich in mineral, augite and contain evidence that they were filled with liquid water is about 620 million years ago.
Assinity: these meteorites are made almost exclusively of the mineral olivine with the addition of pyroxene, feldspar, and oxides. They contain noble gases that differ from the composition of the Martian atmosphere, indicating that their origin in the mantle.
All three of these types are markedly different from other meteorites found on Earth, but have elemental and isotopic community. The ratio of oxygen isotopes in them, in particular, differs from the ratio in other meteorites, but they also have earlier time of formation. For a long time, scientists suspected that they may have a similar origin, which distinguishes them from the more typical meteorites.
In 1976, the landers “Viking” has brought us information about the surface of Mars, including information about the Martian atmosphere and rocks found on the surface. The similarities were striking, and many thought that all three of these types of meteorites were originally from Mars. But the real proof came in 1983, when the glass formed in the process of falling of one of these shergottites, found imprisoned gases, and these gases are consistent with what was found “Viking” on Mars.
In 2018 were 207 known Martian meteorites. Based on radiometric Dating, we can conclude that the meteorites that come from Mars, extremely young: just 3 of those that hails from Mars, older than 1.4 billion years old; the majority were formed several hundred million years ago.
In addition, we can tell how long they traveled, based on their contacts with cosmic rays, the duration of which was from 730 000 years to 20 million years. In any case, the formation of these meteorites on Mars occurred relatively recently, from the point of view of Geology, and when they got to Earth, mammals have already dominated the planet.
No need to be the size of the asteroid that killed the dinosaurs to dump material from the planet, and these impacts apparently occurred often enough to convey the material from one planet to another within the Solar system. Approximately 0.3% of all meteorites that fell to Earth, have Martian origin that gives food to thoughts on the origin of life — perhaps on the Ground it came from Mars or other planets in the Solar system. Not yet been to another planet, but by natural processes other planets regularly visit us. Pieces of Mars find on the planet. If you try, you may find pieces of Land on other planets that we have yet to visit.
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