A few years after the revolution in publishing, in the world there was another revolution. As in 1985, paid for it and made Apple Computer. Then there was the iPod, iPhone, iPad, witnessing the birth of augmented reality… Where the world is heading?
The revolution in publishing has divided the world into “before” and “after” – print production fell by a couple of orders of magnitude, was made available to all, and there were glossy magazines, with little or no information. And a lot more, useful, reasonable and kind, but not to count how many people gloss weaned think.
The revolution in media has divided the world into “before” and “after”, its a side result was the audio-visual generation, who prefer to consume information in someone dissected the visual form, without straining your own fantasy and simplifying all that is possible and impossible.
Computers and the Internet also created with solely good intentions, but people quickly learned to use them to damage each other.
At the time, Plato is not the one talked about a lot in our days, and philosopher of old, who “is our friend, but truth is more expensive”, warned about the dangers… of writing.
While a huge amount of sacred texts and scientific (there were some) content memorize. Fantastic memory training, disciplining the mind. In addition, knowledge of the educated sapiens, like a sword in sheath, were always with him, at the distance of thought.
Losing something in these bloodless (almost) revolutions, we gain something else, and the world is still alive. Is this normal, or we one day will come the moment?
Pencil (Pencil Test)
This three-minute animation was the first step towards the creation of QuickTime. It was created in 1988 in ATG (advanced technology group) at Apple. For several years it was used for testing the developed technology, to add to it, and others – but he was the first.
It was created not on the Macintosh II in 1988, it was absolutely impossible. And on the Macintosh II. The plural is important. There were so many.
First, create the frameset (frames), their number was about five thousand. Each frame is “weighed” about a megabyte. All together they held 5 gigabytes of disk space. At that time the most powerful personal computers (the Mac II) had, on average, 2 megabytes of RAM, and hard disk 40. The drive capacity of 160 megabytes was an accomplishment.
The drawing of each frame required a lot of time, but for their transformation as a video with synchronized sound, it required a lot of computational effort. In those days, that was done with specialized workstations (Unix) at a cost of hundreds of thousands of dollars. To digitize video to the ATG was used a “farm” of dozens of Macintosh II, and a huge store of memory (the original data size to 5 Gigabytes, plus all sorts in between) – it was a mad experiment, both in price and worth your time and effort.
And the very idea was crazy and unrealistic. But in 1988 or 1989, after the head of the ATG showed the video to John Scully, accompanied by his explanations and commentaries, that dream has turned into a project with the code name QuickTime.
The Directive on the opening of the project, its financing and the right of access to information about any developments of the company(!), there was a list of his tasks: multimedia, video, audio, and much more… working with faxes.
Media at the beginning of time
The term “multimedia” in the late ‘ 80s meant a hodgepodge of unrelated video, audio and texts. It’s very much written and talked but no one understood what it is and why you need it at all. Fashionable topic for small talk, not more.
Doug Calgon, who in 1990 product Manager QuickTime, Apple came in the early 80’s, right after University, in the marketing Department of multimedia. He worked on the development and promotion of the video and audio cards, first for the Apple II, then Mac. This is what is meant by multimedia. Funny?
The video at that time was analog, almost everything. It was distributed on tapes or discs (similar to CD’s, only twice the diameter) on each side which fits to 30 minutes. The photo CD in the hands of Peter Howdy. Peter was one of the main developers of QuickTime, from 1990 to 1999. To the right of it Bruce Leake, head of the QuickTime team from 1990 to 1992.
Digital already invented, but it existed somewhere on the distant periphery and anyone seriously interested.
The multimedia center for video viewing that time included the Mac, the TV and player laser video discs, connected by wires. The program to control was written in HyperCard, and was able to switch between parts of the video and allowed to navigate it.
The complex was not particularly fast: to move from one place to laser disk to another, another place we had yet to find, it took a few seconds. The preparation of the “index” side of the laser disk has accelerated the search to almost instant, but it took a good 10 or 15 minutes. Half the duration of the viewing. On the disk you can save three or four of the index (for one and a half or two laser disks).
But, nevertheless, it was already closer to the subject than the video and audio cards.
Not without an involuntary deception. Dan Casey, a senior official of marketing Department of Apple, in one of the WWDC sessions 1990 announced third-party developers about the project “Warhol”, and showed them the achievements of the group advanced technology.
He asked for third party assistance. Invited them to participate in the project. In this venture as many insoluble difficulties!
Dan knew, in General terms, the development of the project associated with media, and participated in meetings on this subject in the group of advanced technologies. He meant well, but it did not go well.
In fact, he deceived the audience. The project “Warhol” was in 1990 already past, those who are doing them now worked in a separate group in the building via Mariani Avenue from the building which housed the marketing Department of the company and the group advanced technologies. The project was called QuickTime, and it even had its own flag. Casey just didn’t know about it.
Mariani Avenue is a few bands with very heavy traffic, just so not to cross.
Nothing in the world is as expensive as measures to protect the information. Except, alas, lack this protection.
The fact that Casey showed developers that it was fine and interesting, but QuickTime is not a single line of code shown them examples of the new technologies was not included. All this was used to create Pencil Test, and forgotten. Now everything was done differently.
The creative efforts of third-party developers were not wanted. Worked in a team QuickTime (Abraham, nerves, lack of sleep) react to the amateurish suggestions are not the best way. Apple’s reputation was dealt real damage, but nobody was punished. Scully came to the conclusion that he is guilty.
Starting from WWDC’91, well-informed about everything in the company management representatives and the security service began to get acquainted with the materials of the WWDC sessions, to avoid and prevent.
When Steve, among other things, a lot of effort and time was spent on the maintenance of esthetics of all performances at WWDC, he personally attended their rehearsals, often several times, is required to replace the incapable of a coherent presentation – and someone even got fired.
The rise of Apple in the zero didn’t happen by itself.
EduCom, fall 1990
In the autumn of 1990, in Atlanta, Georgia, the participants of the conference EduCom demonstrated the first multimedia application using QuickTime, QuickTime the truth about the (yet to be announced and a secret project) has not been told anything.
A similar application called “the kiosk”, I do not like the name – but, as I understand, it was the first “kiosk” in the world.
The application was developed jointly by the University of Georgia (Clate Sanders) and Apple Computer (Greg Gretch). It was called “Navigator News”. According to Greg, in honor of the movie of John sculley ‘s“Knowledge Navigator”.
Don’t deny our jungle this may seem to be “bending” to the authorities, but most likely, none that Greg had not even thought about it, the more that “News Navigator”, which was created under his leadership, was not a video, but a real and useful application similar to which the world has ever had.
The application was implemented in HyperCard on the main screen was the list of news headlines, with links to related news text, photos, and videos. The news list is updated in real time (if you have a good channel of communication, such as Ethernet 10 Mbit/s), video provided to CNN. Videos converted into the format QTFF, and stored on a file server.
For those who watched the demonstration, it was like pure magic. What they showed was superior to the capabilities of the technology, and members of EduCom perfectly knew about it.
Well, Apple is magic. Please note…
In the sequel, disclosure of the secret of magic, and an explanation of some unexplained phenomena, the origin of MPEG-4 and why Apple needed QuickTime for Windows.