Has long been known that vaccines can protect us from viruses or serious infections. But is it possible to get vaccinated against cancer? This question has interested scientists from all over the world already not the first year. Regularly being developed in this area and more recently it became known that a group of Russian scientists from the National medical research center of Oncology named after N. N. Blokhin is developing a vaccine against one of the deadliest cancers – melanoma.
Previous studies showed that melanoma has special mechanisms that help it evade detection by the immune system, which makes it so dangerous. It is possible to identify specific mutations in the melanoma cells from a particular patient in order to determine the unique proteins of the tumor, which can be used to create neoantigen. Neoantigen are proteins identical to proteins of the tumor tissue, but with one exception: the immune system recognizes them. Thereafter, the resulting neoantigen in the form of vaccines to the patient. It is worth noting that the vaccine is developed primarily with an eye to those who underwent removal of the tumor in order to avoid relapse in the future. As one of the developers,
“Now we are creating a program that predicts what neoantigen need to enter the answer cells of the immune system. From thousands of potential neoantigen with the help of machine learning methods you need to choose twenty, of which at least a portion is securely contacted with T lymphocytes. By October 2018 will be made by this algorithm and will be the first neoantigen that it will be possible to include in the vaccine for mice.”
The vaccine will test for 3 groups of animals: the first (control) infected melanoma and she will not get treatment, also the second infected will get the vaccine as treatment, and the third group will be first to get the vaccine for prevention, and then will be infected melanoma in order to understand how effective the vaccine is in each case.
“The success of the vaccine developed by our scientists, will depend on how well they will be able to select and synthesize the right set of neoantigens, capable of activating an immune response against the tumor.”
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