From the sound, like many things else, has its limits. So, in the open air, the maximum noise level can reach 194 decibels, and under water — 270 decibels. To recreate the maximum volume is extremely difficult, but researchers from SLAC National accelerator laboratory and Stanford University have tried to do this. In the experiment, they have ensured that the volume of sound under water has reached the most limit of 270 decibel — it took trickle of water and a powerful laser.
Physicists have noted that sound is a physical phenomenon that creates a pressure wave. At zero decibel level no waves there, but at maximum volume the medium through which the sound begins to break down without letting it become even louder. The same thing happens when cooling and heating materials — there are certain limits which could not be overcome.
To re-create the loudest sound under water, the scientists used a device for emitting coherent light Linac Coherent Light Source, which is essentially an incredibly powerful x-ray laser. He was sent on a microscopic jet of water, the thickness of which ranged from 14 to 30 micrometers. When short x-ray pulses fell into the water, it evaporated and created a shock wave, which became the sources of loud sound.
The researchers noticed that when the sound intensity reached the maximum level, the water turned into a small, steam-filled bubbles that immediately burst in the cavitation process.
We’re not just talking about the first x-ray beam of a Linac Coherent Light Source. In 2017, the researchers used it to unimaginable earlier experiment, in which independently created a molecular black hole the size of a single atom.
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