Unfortunately, our world still remains the state that are not served correction. But that does not mean you have to stop looking for ways to cope with them. Take, for example, down’s syndrome — a disorder that can affect memory, ability to learn and cause other intellectual disorders. However, significant progress in the fight against this violation have American researchers from the University of California San Francisco and medical College of Baylor.
How to cope with down syndrome?
All people with down syndrome have one thing in common: an extra copy of the chromosome 21 pair. For this reason, the bulk of research on down syndrome has focused on the genetic aspect of this condition. But a new study published not long ago in the prestigious journal Science, the researchers focused on the protein cells in the brains of mice with down syndrome. This led them to the discovery that the hippocampus region of the animals (this is the part of the brain located in the temporal parts of the hemispheres) produced 39 percent less protein than normal mice.
Further investigation has led scientists to the conclusion that the presence of an extra chromosome, probably induced hippocampal cells of animals to cause a reaction, called the integrated stress response (ISR), which reduces protein production. About such discoveries, we regularly reported on our website in Yandex.Zen. So subscribe not to miss anything important.
Each cell is “constantly watching their health,” said one of the authors, Professor Peter Walter in a press releaseon this work. When something goes wrong, the cell responds by producing less of the protein, which usually is an appropriate response to the violation. But protein synthesis in the brain necessary for the exercise of the functions of the higher nervous activity, therefore, the decrease of protein synthesis occurs pathology in the brain and memory.
After it was made this discovery, a team of scientists has locked in the brain of laboratory mice with the equivalent of down syndrome the activity of the enzyme PKR, which was responsible for cellular stress. As a result, the researchers found that they can not only reverse the decline in protein production, but also improve the mental function of animals.
See also: Why people have 23 pairs of chromosomes?
Naturally, the success of the experiment in rodents does not mean that the technique will operate successfully and on the people. However, when the researchers analyzed postmortem brain tissue samples of people with down syndrome, they found evidence that ISR has been activated, and hence the activity of the enzyme was high. And in theory, blocking it can have the same results as in animals.
They also received a sample of tissue from a person with down syndrome who had an extra copy of chromosome 21 only in some cells, but not in all. And these modified cells were only activated by the enzyme PKR. And it suggests that the human brain works in a similar mechanism. And it can be affected in a similar way. A study of the possibility to do it the experts and intend to do in the near future.