Why Apple handed HyperCard for free? If each Mac can almost “beat” its cost?
Something like a continue of the first part here.
In 1987, when HyperCard was almost ready and on its refinement and optimization worked with a team (ten people), bill Atkinson put before the company’s management an ultimatum. Or the company is obliged to distribute HyperCard for free, or he, bill Atkinson, having all rights to this program goes and develops it on the side.
Big men, of course, was furious. But Scully, after discussing the situation with Atkinson, has accepted all its terms and conditions. Scully was neither a pacifier nor a fool. HyperCard was the best Apple Computer. The more accessible, the better.
Indeed, HyperCard became a real machine for making money, and since it never was, he “sold” the Mac I. in Spite of their prohibitively high prices.
Attempts to write something the same, only better, was a lot, but none of them were as successful may be due to the fact that all of these programs were paid. Or is it “divinity” of nature HyperCard?
In 1989, bill Atkinson left the project. Appeared something a little more interesting. The silver age of HyperCard, however, continued.
Danny Goodman, “HyperCard. A complete guide”
Scully not only accepted the conditions of Atkinson and supported the project in difficult times. He even invited Danny Goodman, technical journalist and programmer to get acquainted with HyperCard a few months before the completion of the project.
In 1987, Danny has published a huge volume entitled “The Complete HyperCard Handbook”, the book became the best-selling ever released books in the Mac native theme and fastest selling computer book in General, in history, to the present day.
Sidenote: the “handbook” in English, “guide”, and is generally irrelevant to the size of the referent, but still “hand” in title of book two kilograms in weight “gives”.
Only Danny has written 47 computer books. Three of them have sold more than 100 thousand copies:
- “The Complete HyperCard Handbook”, 1987, – 650 thousand;
- “Dynamic HTML”, 1998, – 100 thousand.
The other 44 books have been fantastically successful (without irony), but runs none of them have achieved.
Edition 1991, I presented at a business meeting (since the book was none of owners is not needed, just sitting on a shelf) 19 August 1991. The book is still with me.
The cycles are different. In the late 90’s, when Ellen Hancock has publicly accused the company, in which it has led by Gil Amelio, in failing to develop its own operating system, in the loss of control and all.
Sales of Macs somehow fell sharply. Reducing the number of users has led to a reduction in the number of Mac ovskih programs on the market. The projects were closed, Mac native before the developers moved to other platforms. The fewer the programs, the worse I sold the Mac and the Mac sold worse and the less I write programs for them.
The book is Goodman’s HyperCard and started a “good” cycle. The more sold Macs with HyperCard in the package, the greater number of people were eager to part with fifty dollars (not including VAT and shipping) for a “Complete guide”. Studies have been conducted, Apple was absolutely not interested, but I personally know several people who bought a Mac specifically to implement some crazy projects in HyperCard.
This cycle saves energy. From Apple Computer to require only one thing: not to interfere. People earn money and to earn more, they buy I. Mac And HyperCard development team listened to them and watched closely (she) for trends in IT, and the plans of these guys were on-go-go what. But…
But let’s not about sad. We still have the “silver age”. Impoverished and lonely old age HyperCard I will describe next time.
Danny Goodman, in the process of writing books, wrote a HyperCard two applications, Focal Point (personal information Manager) and Business Class (the guide to doing business in different countries). These apps were the first representatives of “stackware”, which has achieved significant commercial success than even more warmed up interest of public to HyperCard and Mac am.
HyperCard is what is indicated by the first 4 letters of its name
Here I can not find who was the author of this statement. Someone reputable and very well known in the then of the personal computer industry. But does it matter who said it: hype really was. However, its existence is recognized after hopelessly addicted to HyperCard. In any case, so it was with me.
Stackvar (program for HyperCard) written by people of all ages, all areas of thought and with very different life experience.
Students with these all is clear. Servile people, almost all of their stacks were the same school works, the only interactive picture. If one of them managed to create something outstanding about it certainly knew at least the Apple merchants. However – the Internet was not there.
Students? These are also clear. Who was the student, he will understand. It was a very interesting program in HyperCard, written by students. Only “communication between the worlds” on it and ended, as a rule. Almost all successful developers have gone into the IT business, sometimes even without finishing their Alma Mater. Found myself.
I’ve read stories about how before normal people suddenly lost interest in most important things in life (from the point of view of family and friends) and began to spend a lot of time unimaginable for their Mac AMI. In each of us sleeps a few geniuses that neither we, nor someone else did not open. HyperCard has prompted one of them and released into the wild, like a Genie from a sealed jug or old lamp. 40 to 50.
Many of them eventually grew out of HyperCard, which, with all due respect, was not a serious development environment and migrated to a more efficient system. Now already knowing what they want, willingly spreading a rather large amount of the developer tools and powerful workstations. HyperCard does not meet them, everything would be different.
But HyperCard, to the very end, they did not forget. The best way to tell a potential investor about your developing project to show it. Conventional presentation software (Apple Keynote or Microsoft PowerPoint), of course, also would fit – but a full app layout imitating his work, in detail, with which the potential investor can even “play” to try it “taste”, much more convincing.
1989 – the personnel changes in the team HyperCard
In 1989, bill Atkinson went into the project Mark Porat “PocketCrystal/Paradigm”. While at Apple. For a short time, a bifurcation point, where Newton could easily occupy a very different device, with large chances of success, but… now we can only speculate. Good topic for works in the genre of alternative fiction.
The team was headed by Kevin Calhoun, one of the programmers of the HyperCard team. The first version was 70% written by bill Atkinson, but, as he himself admitted many years later, just because of the fact that he was first the Manager of the team, not just one of the programmers.
One of the best programmers in the HyperCard team was Kevin Calhoun, who, on the recommendation of bill Atkinson, was appointed to lead the group after his departure. Good choice. Kevin stayed with HyperCard until the end, not giving up, no matter what.
HyperCard was criticized for his slowness, but without Kevin it would be slower than 3-4 times. On average. Testing of scripts after its optimization has earned 30 times faster. With quite reasonable speed.
In 1990, the company released HyperCard 2.0, the first major upgrade of this environment. It was very much new, however, some improvement is damaging its popularity.
The company has commanded, in fact, to make HyperCard paid.
Formally, the decision did not violate any of the clauses of the agreement of the company with bill Atkinson every Mac om, as before, was supplied a free copy of HyperCard. But now it was a “RAS-time”. Player for HyperCard stacks. The user level it was limited to the second.
The decision killed the magical power of the product. The full version could be bought not for 49,095 dollar, not for 149,95. And for 249,95. Doesn’t matter, and here’s why.
Kevin Calhoun and his whole team acted very ugly and disloyal towards the company. They released the full version (paid), and “RAS-time”, suspiciously the same size as the full version. And all the informal communication channels spread the “rumor” that after typing in the Message Box (which is opened by using Command-M on the keyboard) team “magic!” ran-half magically turned into the full version.
It was rumored, it is known to all in the team HyperCard, it has been known to many people outside of the team, but… no One denounced them. Did Scully is unknown. Sometimes it is very difficult to understand what he was doing actually.
Great, right? But history had another side. The paid version of HyperCard still buying, but the volume of its sales made to think about the popularity of the product.
Yet all was well…