Two and a half and eight million years ago near us (astronomically speaking) broke out two supernovae that could lead to the depletion of the ozone layer of the Earth and the many undesirable consequences for life. In particular, a serious blow could be a supernova age of two and a half million years. Pliocene, hot and soft the era ended, and the Pleistocene era of glaciation and of the glacial period. Natural variations in Earth’s orbit and swinging probably would explain climate change, but the event of the supernova, which occurred just at this period, would be better.
It is believed that the supernova erupted in 163-326 light years from us (50-100 parsecs). For comparison, our nearest stellar neighbor, Proxima Centauri, is 4.2 light years away.
The consequences for the Earth
A supernova can sterilize any inhabited planets in the area, if they are on the way of ionizing radiation. Could these supernovae to cause chaos to the existing biology of our planet? Dr. Brian Thomas, an astrophysicist at Washburn University in Kansas, decided to find out for sure and modeled the effects of biology on the surface of the Earth based on geological evidence of outbreaks of two supernovae, 2.5 and 8 million years ago, respectively. In his latest work, Thomas has studied the promotion of the supernova cosmic rays through the atmosphere to the surface, to understand their influence on living organisms.
Looking at the fossil record during the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary (to 2.5 million years ago), we see a dramatic change in the fossil record and global coverage of soil. Thomas notes that “there were changes, especially in Africa, which showed a transition from more wooded to meadow soil”. At the same time, the geological record shows a global increase in concentrations of iron-60, which is a radioactive isotope formed during the supernova explosion.
“We were interested in how exploding stars might have influenced life on earth, and it turned out that several million years ago life has undergone major changes,” says Thomas. “This may be due to a supernova”.
For example, the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary was a change in the number of species. Despite the fact that major mass extinctions did not occur, was observed a higher extinction rate overall, has varied in the kinds and varied vegetation.
Not so deadly
As a nearby supernova could affect life on Earth? Thomas noted with displeasure that the supernova is frequently exhibited in this light that “supernova erupts and everyone dies”, but it is not so. It’s all about the atmosphere. The ozone layer protects biological life from malware that modifies the genetic background ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Thomas made models of the global climate models of the atmospheric chemical composition and transfer of radiation (propagation of radiation in the atmosphere), to better understand how to flash the cosmic rays supernova could affect the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly the ozone layer.
It should be noted that cosmic rays are supernova not will incinerate everything in its path. Intergalactic medium acts as a kind of sieve, slowing cosmic rays, and “radioactive rain of iron” (iron-60) for hundreds of thousands of years. High-energy particles arrive first to the Ground and will interact with our atmosphere is not as low-energy particles which arrive later. Thomas modeled the depletion of the ozone layer through the 100, 300 and 1000 years after the first particles of the supernova began to penetrate the atmosphere. Curiously, the depletion reached a peak (26%) after 300 years.
High-energy cosmic rays for a 100-year scenario will seep right through the stratosphere and drop your energy below the ozone layer, Deplete less, and 300-year scenarios are less energetic cosmic rays would Deposit more energy into the stratosphere, significantly depleting the ozone layer.
Ozone depletion is a serious threat to the life on the surface.
Thomas studied several possible detrimental effects for biology (erythema, skin cancer, cataracts, slowing photosynthesis of marine fitoplankton and damage to plants) for different latitudes as a result of increased intensity of ultraviolet radiation caused by ozone layer depletion. Increased damage appeared in all directions, increasing with latitude and the corresponding changes preserved in the fossil record. However, not all the consequences were equally flawed for organisms. Plankton, a major producer of oxygen, is affected minimally. In addition, there was a small increase in the risk of sunburn and skin cancer among people.
So, could a nearby supernova lead to mass extinction? Depends how you look at it, says Thomas: “There’s a subtle difference between “destruction of everything” and the suffering of individual organisms. Some plants added in the crop, like soybeans and wheat, while others are lost in productivity.” And this is also reflected in the fossil.
And here is how a supernova could affect the evolution of a man — this question, Thomas will be engaged in following their work.