The first Mac: Finder and file system

The emergence of the myth of primitiveness and worthlessness Mac’ and blame its creators. They are too well done its work. The Mac system was more complicated and interesting of all the popular systems of the time, inside. Outwardly, everything was very simple, and just worked.

And why is the user knowledge of the details of anatomy and physiology his personal assistant?

The worst kind of “expert” – pick up the top Amateurs. Those who actually owned, Mac appreciated. They are not deceived buying the simplicity of the interface, they found it very thoughtful, logical and convenient. “Today I saw what will be computers in five years”, they said.

But the “experts” were puzzled: who needs this plastic “talking” box, if it is absolutely impossible to understand? No command line, no text files containing scripts or configuration. Nothing at all! Well, not to look him “in the soul”!

To open the casing? On it a sign: “do Not open, inside there is nothing interesting”. Someone still opened and really did not find anything interesting. Circuit boards, chips…

I wonder what they hoped to see there? A tiny alien who’s confined to a microscopic control, with a bowl of dried alien worms?

Finder and the file system

The shell of the operating system of Macs with its first day and is still called Finder. “Whoever finds something”. On the border of the 80s and 90s, when disk storage became big, there was a joke: Finder that finds nothing (the Finder, which finds nothing), but in 1984, on a floppy disk with a capacity of 400 K to hide something was not easy.

This is a classic Mac app ovsky, written by Bruce horn and Steve Capps. Bruce is a genius and a perfectionist, “some lone nut”. To work with him on one task nobody could ever. But in the fall of 1983, when the last and final completion date of the project was only personal, Finder “stuck”.

Steve Capps was able to find common ground with Bruce. The problems were totally objective, but together they managed. In December 1983, the Finder was ready to come out into the light. That day the developers of Mac and staged a “day of Steve KAPS” – all came dressed as he dressed.

According to journalists, the main function of the Finder was the file system management Mac. Add to this definition only one word: “the Main apparent function…”. It is the realization of the metaphor of “desktop”, with documents and tools to work with them.

File system first Mac a called MFS (Macintosh File System). It was not a hierarchy of directories, it was as flat as a bad joke, but for floppy disks with a capacity of 400 kilobytes, much of which was eaten by the system, it was necessary.

Directory (for Mac ovsk – folders) to MFS really was an illusion. They were only visible in the Finder. Links to all the file system objects were stored in one invisible small file size.

Hierarchical file system (HFS) was written much earlier, but at the time it was removed to the archive. Up to System 3.0 on Macs were only used MFS.

On the system diskette was originally two folders – System Folder and Empty Folder. In the Empty Folder, the user could “move” your documents and programs, as in a Desk drawer. Taking the necessary file and dragging it into an open or closed folder. Empty Folder can be renamed. And after the renaming the miracle happened: on the desktop immediately appeared a new empty folder called Empty Folder.

File system the first Mac was called MFS (Macintosh File System), it was designed and optimized for unilateral 3.5-inch diskette with a capacity of 400 kilobytes, and laugh at her. She was “flat”. It was just “disk” (the disk), and files. A hierarchy of directories (folders, if Mac ovsk) was not.

When you delete a Empty Folder (for this it was necessary to drag into the “trash” (Trash) and to select the Special menu command “Empty Trash”. Empty ballot boxes destroyed all that was in it, users accustomed to the idea that it is unrecoverable. In fact, if the destruction of these files was not created with new, you can still improve, using a special tool – the truth, there he was, I think, in 1985.

Theoretically restore the file could be using a 16-hexadecimal editor, manually editing the contents of the invisible list of files and folders, but it was beyond good and evil: it was necessary to find a lost file, to correctly align its position on the disk in the designation, clear the “file invisible”, correct the information of the “invisible file” and not to make mistakes – otherwise the system disk ceased to boot. Sent to the trash by mistake (or an experiment) that the file can be restore by using the command Put Back in the File menu. If “the trash hasn’t endured”.

The names of the files intended for user, the file system is used to identify a unique ID (number). The names of the files and folders you can use absolutely any characters except the colon.

MFS can work with file names up to 255 characters, but the Finder has limited a flight of fancy user pathetic 63. In one version (3.0, I think), the length of the file name again restricted, this time 31 character. This restriction survived until 1998.

That is, if the “system font for displaying the file names in Finder” knew the Cyrillic, the folder could be called “Ya favorites. For 1984..1987”. And the documents in it, for example, “Tale of a runaway bull”.

The contents of the active (selected) window if you wish, you can print another one. If there was a printer. Or send by Fax – if you had a modem and program Fax.

MFS can work with storage space up to 20 Megabytes or files with the 1400, at a time when the only accessible repository of information was one-sided floppies with a capacity of 400 K, these limits are theoretical.

File system objects

I in the previous section called user-visible file system objects in a word file. This, from the point of view of designers (in the best sense of the word) Mac and sin. In the system of Mac files was not only applications, documents, applications and system documents.

The metaphor of the desktop is such a roleplay.

A Central element of this game was “documents”, double click on their icon they have opened, and if their application was not yet running, and opened it. (It seems that now it should “click” to call “clicking”, but this term is not very much).

The app could begin by double clicking on its icon – if the drive does not have documents of the required type or if it was more comfortable. Or if the application does not have any identification principle in (a game, 16-hex editor disk and the like).

In the role play was not involved, only system documents, with few exceptions double click on their icons did not lead to any action. They began to hide, and that’s good. You had to install the driver, e.g., printer, PC DOS? But on a Mac the whole process was dragging a document, for example “Image Writer LQ” in the system folder. To remove the printer from working without removing it valuable system document (the driver), it was possible, by removing its icon from the System Folder.

Where documents and applications can know what icons to display them on the screen as someone to open it? Because no file extension in MFS was not. If you do not know how to do it, but asked the question, I’m proud of you.

This search meant the authors of the name Finder.

The text is stored in computers as sequences of numbers. In the era of desktop OS every symbol is denoted by the byte number of length 8 bits. Uppercase and lowercase letters, punctuation marks, digit, space, etc – “non-printable” characters like “return line”, “beep”, “move to the next row” and the like. In our days are used much more wasteful encoding but I about them do not tell.

The engineers of the Macintosh team came up with the data type OSType, which value was a number, but on the screen appear as a sequence of 4 letters. OSType used in Mac-native the system to mnemonic symbol of the different entities.

The type of file to display two attributes of type OSType, the first of which denotes the format (Type Code) and the second (Creator Code) if the file or application, kept the mnemonic APPL if the document type which created this application document. It is not all possible options are “Creator” and the rest (system documents, drivers, etc.) do not interest us.

Whatever way the end user sees the file may be in store MFS or HFS, the system recorded information about the attributes and the icon in a special file not visible to users. Double click on the document included in the search algorithm of the Creator of the document – the application with a file type equal to the Creator of the file. If within a disk such was not, looked for application that can work with this type of documents.

Conflicts? Happened. But much less than in PC DOS. On a Mac the file type is designated eight characters instead of three in PC DOS. Uppercase and lowercase letters in the Mac native designation of the file types differ, and nobody forbade to use as unique values for all symbols.

Multitasking

The system of the first Macs didn’t support multitasking. At any time the computer runs one program, or application, or system – that is Finder.

Meanwhile, in the process of developing the Mac and I quickly found the need for tools which is always handy. Calculator, alarm clock, map of the current keyboard layout and much more.

The solution was found. Its called Desktop Accessories, or DA’s. Accessories desktop. By its nature it was the drivers of a special type. They lived in RAM allocated to the running app. You can run any of them, but it could easily cause damage to their host application.

Access to DA s was carried out from the menu “Apple”, the content of which is not dependent on the running application. DA wrote not only in Apple, but third-party developers.

To be continued.

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    In December of 2017, Donald Trump made history by recognizing Jerusalem as the captial of Israel Why is this big news? Because by this the Jewish people of Israel are now able to press forward in bringing about the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible

    The Jewish people deny Jesus as their Messiah and have stated that their Messiah has been identified and is waiting to be revealed They say this man will rule the world under a one world igion called spiritualism

    They even printed a coin to raise money for the Temple with Donald Trumps face on the front and with king Cyrus'(who built the second Temple) behind him On the back of the coin is an image of the third Temple

    The Bible says this false Messiah who seats himself in the Third Temple will be thee antichrist that will bring about the Great Tribulation, though the Jewish people believe he will bring about world peace It will be a false peace for a period of time You can watch interviews of Jewish Rabbi’s in Israel speaking of these things They have their plans set in place It is only years away!

    More importantly, the power that runs the world wants to put a RFID microchip in our body making us total slaves to them This chip matches perfectly with the Mark of the Beast in the Bible, more specifically Revelation 13:16-18:

    He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name

    Here is wisdom Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666

    Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards Otherwise, we could still buy or sell without the mark amongst others if physical money was still currency RFID microchip implant technology will be the future of a one world cashless society containing digital currency It will be implanted in the right-hand or the forehead, and we cannot buy or sell without it! We must grow strong in Jesus AT ALL COSTS, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name ” (Revelation 14:9-11)

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    VISIT WWW BIBLEFREEDOM COM TO SEE PROOF FOR THESE THINGS AND MUCH MORE! TELL YOUR FRIENDS AND FAMILY SHARE THIS MESSAGE!

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  11. Would you allow your government to place a microchip in your body?

    Did you know that is the future we are approaching with RFID Microchip technology?

    Even more importantly, did you know there was a man almost 2000 years ago who prophesied of a cashless society in the last days? This mans name is Jesus

    Did you know that this RFID Microchip matches perfectly with the Mark of the Beast in Revelation 13:16-18?

    He(the false prophet) causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name

    Here is wisdom Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666 (Revelation 13:16-18)

    Referring to the end times, this could only be speaking of a cashless money society, which we have yet to see, but are moving towards Otherwise we could still buy or sell without the mark among others if physical money was still currency This mark could not be spiritual, because the word references two different physical locations If it was spiritual, it would just say in the forehead

    Mr Carl Sanders attended seventeen New World Order meetings with heads-of-state officials such as Henry Kissinger and Bob Gates of the C I A to discuss their agenda on how to bring forth this one-world system The US government commissioned Carl Sanders to design a microchip for identifying and controlling the peoples of the world-a microchip that could be inserted under the skin with a hypodermic needle(a quick, convenient process that would be gradually accepted by society)

    Carl Sanders, with a group of engineers behind him, with U S grant monies provided by tax dollars, took on this challenge and designed a microchip that is powered by a lithium battery, rechargeable through the temperature fluctuations in our skin Without the knowledge of the Bible(Mr Sanders was not a believer at the time), these engineers spent one and a half million dollars doing research on the best and most convenient place to have the microchip placed under the skin

    Guess what? These researchers found that the forehead and the back of the hand(the two spots Revelation says the mark will go) are not just the most convenient spots, but are also the only viable locations for rapid, consistent temperature changes in the skin to recharge the lithium battery The chip is approximately seven millimeters in length, 75 millimeters in diameter, about the size of a grain of rice It is capable of holding pages of information about you All your general history, work history, crime record, health history, and financial data can be stored on this chip

    Mr Sanders believes that this chip, which he regretfully helped engineer, is the mark spoken about in Revelation 13:16-18 The original Greek word for mark is charagma, which means a scratch or etching It is also interesting to note that the number 666 is a word in the original Greek language The word is chi xi stigma, with the last part, stigma, also meaning to stick or prick Carl believes this is referring to the use of a hypodermic needle being poked into the human flesh to insert the microchip

    Carl Sanders asked a doctor what would occur if the lithium contained within the RFID chip leaked into the body The doctor replied by saying a terrible sore would appear in that spot This is what the book of Revelation has to say:

    And the first(Angel) went, and poured out his vial on the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore on the men which had the mark of the beast, and on them which worshipped his image (Revelation 16:2)

    The Bible tells us we cannot buy or sell without the mark of the beast, or the number of its name This number is identified as 666 The Bible tells us to calculate the number 666

    In this world we are identified by numbers, whether it is our social security number, drivers license, or cards used to make payments The number of the beast represents something like this, to identify us in a one world government system This number will be contained within the microchip to identify each and every one of us so we may buy or sell

    To see the hidden meaning behind calculating the number 666(6+6+6 18), and how it matches up with scipture perfectly,

    Go to: biblefreedom rfid-mark-revealed

    The Bible warns us in the last days that a false prophet will rise up doing miracles to deceive many to take this mark At all costs, do not take it!

    Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name (Revelation 14:9-11)

    And He(Jesus) said to me(Apostle John), It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts (Revelation 21:6)

    Jesus answered and said to her, Whoever drinks of this water will thirst again, but whoever drinks of the water(the Holy Spirit) that I shall give him will never thirst But the water that I shall give him will become in him a fountain of water springing up into everlasting life (John 4:13-14)

    Jesus answered, Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘You must be born again ‘ (John 3:5-6)

    All igion is man-made Man can create igion, but no one can create the Holy Spirit that comes from God out of Heaven Jesus never told us to follow a igion or denomination:

    Then He(Jesus) said to them all, If anyone desires to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow Me (Luke 9:23)

    You can receive the Spirit of God right now If you are willing to humble yourself before the Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead on the third day; call out to God and ask Him to forgive your sins, to receive His Holy Spirit If you are genuine, He is faithful and just to forgive, and He will give you a new heart, a renewing of the mind, restoring everything the devil has stolen from you; making you like a child again, through the sanctification of the Spirit

    When we receive the Spirit of God, we become born from above, and His seed resides within us We no longer make a practice of sin, but rather turn away from unrighteousness and receive the righteousness of Christ

    From that point onward, we must put all our hope and trust in Jesus, and grow to walk in His ways, not straying from the narrow path For Jesus says,

    Enter by the narrow gate; for wide is the gate and broad is the way that leads to destruction, and there are many who go in by it Because narrow is the gate and difficult is the way which leads to life, and there are few who find it (Matthew 7:13-14)

    Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty(One God), Who was(Jesus) and is(YHWH) and is to come(Jesus)! (Revelation 4:8)

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