The phenomenon of Copland and Gershwin people

If, in 1995, at least the first of these systems, and at least in a Developer Release (on modern, in early beta), in more or less working condition, can be seen… But no, the year of release of Windows 95, a new version of the Mac-native system was just announced.

Talking in the previous part, I ran a little ahead. In 1995 even show there was nothing. None of these systems is still practically was not.

Only had the plans and technology that was planned to include in Copland: OpenDoc, which was the main topic at WWDC 1995, QuickDraw GX, and QuickDraw 3D, full confidence in the superiority of Apple over Microsoft, and early implementation of a file system intended for Copland.

In our days, thinking about Spindler in 1995, and somehow blame him for the inactivity, incapacity, and I have met such approval if, on behalf of the head of the company, orders wrote David Seda, one of the employees of the Central office of the company at the highest level.

But at WWDC 1995, Michael made good. What he said was not true. But it gives hope and inspires.

Before Windows 95 was only a few months, and exploration of Apple probably already reported this to the management of the company. The output of the system was imminent, the presentation of Windows 95 had been invited Mick Jagger (who spoke at the presentation of the Mac in 1984), who is well paid, and who has already agreed – and why would he care?

It was a symbolic gesture: Apple, your time has passed!


Modern operating system from Apple Computer, still, it was not. Apple’s approval that System 7.5 is a great system, bothered ovskih Mac developers, they wrote in Cupertino letters, in which he asked to address this issue.

Michael talked to the developers about their problems, they even clapped and moved to the most interesting topic even more interesting than OpenDoc, the technology with which the greater part of the sitting in the hall as it is not very evolved.

On the huge screen appeared three rectangles with text. “System 7.5”, “Copland” and “Gershwin”.

Then there was word about Copland: we want to protect the programs written for Mac, in the new system, they will work as before. They, as before, preemptive multitasking and other delights of the modern operating system is not available.

Module in the system, which is responsible for the execution of old programs, called BlueBox.

The programs written for Copland will be available all the charm of a modern OS. Including multitasking. In different parts of the software are used, different types.

The user interface, and the old library (like QuickDraw), as before, use cooperative multitasking.

User interfaces interact with the user, it is their main task. Interfaces run services, which can be implemented in any of the types of multitasking, mostly preemptive.

The application available as services included in the system and the services written by the developer.

A new file system optimized for large data warehouses… Spindler told about something very similar to HFS+, the file system introduced in Mac OS 8.1 through three years, in the Apple of Steve jobs. In DR0, in 1996, the new file system was not.

System design for an unusual look, if you think about it, was quite logical. In iOS, I do not know now, but before the ninth version exactly, all operations associated with user interface (display and the like) is allowed only from the main thread.

We can live with it, it fixes the problem.

Then he described how Gershwin would be more modern and better. Optimized for PowerPC, compatibility with architecture CHRP (Common Hardware Reference Platform, standard architecture for the PowerPC, Apple and IBM published in 1995), and a lot of good stuff.


On the new systems was discussed, again, in may 1995.

In fact, the project was far from complete, and many implementation issues have not yet been decided. Nevertheless, the developer release was promised “this summer”, that is, in 1995, three months after WWDC.

Unreal. The slightest chance. But it’s not so bad.

At the end of the year (1995) was promised the first release of the new operating system.

In fact, the developer release is a perverted name beta, so in those days it was accepted. Even reduction, this was a DR that knew everyone who needed to know.

To predict how much beta or DR until the moment when the product will be, at least in General terms, and to a certain extent, compatible with a standard user, you can – if you came from the future and know exactly how many there were in a particular case.

DR0, DR1, and so on.

And then experienced adults report that DR will be the only one, and then quickly released and the full version. Try to catch its output to rewrite their programs!

But that’s not all.

Gershwin Spindler promised in the next (1996) year, or the year after (1997).

If you do not find the information about the timing (and suddenly they have reason to promise such a thing?), and a few other minor punctures (maybe he engineers a little whistle, you never know why the hands are different), the developers breathed a sigh of relief.

Usually Apple fulfills its promises, sometimes late, but complied.

Windows 95

This time, the release of Chicago were not transferred. Windows 95 was presented with the noise and in a big way, on TV repeatedly replayed footage of the arrival of the system in some new places, seems, and in Russia the system greeted like a pop star.

I worked at that time in the company, on 99% consisting of users and developers of Windows, the company had a partnership with Microsoft, and copies of the system have appeared before the Grand announcement of its sales.

And the summer is ended, then ended a year – no DR Copland was not, and nobody (even Apple) could not say anything definite.

During meetings with the political leader of the project, is the main issues now discussed the ugliness of Windows 95, another wishlist of company administration and ideas from a variety of groups, companies, offering, for example, to integrate a map of the world with translation into foreign languages, or to add interfaces to the server in exchange rates, or to arrange the order of tickets…

Not the fact that offered just this stuff (I’ve listed a number of projects, including such idiocy that was just obvious), but something very similar. On the question of the vane Merecki about the ethics of incorporating such services into the operating system, the one who had to answer for everything, gave a lecture about love.

However, from the proposed theme for Copland by the closing date of the project was finished two or three, is absolutely harmless – the type of tag and TIC-TAC-toe.

In may 1996, at WWDC, the main theme was Copland. Dozens of hours of performances, the system was first demonstrated to users (avoiding, of course, sharp corners and sudden movements – who had to show unfinished program or system, he will understand me), it looked quite decent, but about DR, this time with the number 0, promised to inform later.

A few months DR0 was sent to “most important partners”. Reading the reviews I understood why DR sent only to them. But we demanded copies of all of our programs for the Mac, to check on their compatibility with Copland.

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