Although we may not like it, but the aging of organisms over time. It affects all organs and the brain is no exception. The aging of the connections between neurons are gradually weakening. In fact, during the life of this most complex organ changes more than any other part of the body. Many older people have difficulty remembering names, numbers, new information in General, and multitasking. This is because with age, neural connections in areas of the brain involved in learning and performing more complex tasks weaken, which leads to slow processing of information. However, even in spite of aging, today there are more and more evidence that the brain is “plastic” and able to adapt to change.
The reasons why aging is the most complex organ of the human body
The aging brain cannot be seen just by looking in the mirror. The brain is changing in subtle but measurable ways as we get older. When a person is born, his brain contains many neurons, but the number of connections between them slightly. As they grow older, formed a large number of neural connections, and with age, they begin to weaken. But what causes these changes? Today there are many different theories about why the neurons and cells in General are getting old. Offer to meet with the three most known theories on causes of aging of the brain.
Changes in gene expression — the process in which heritable information from a gene (sequence of nucleotides in DNA) is converted to RNA or protein may play a role in aging neurons. Genes involved in synaptic plasticity, less active in the brains of older people than in the brain of young people. In these genes, tend to have more signs of DNA damage that accumulate throughout life and contribute to the aging process in the brain and body.
Synaptic plasticity is the primary mechanism, which realizes the phenomenon of memory and learning.
Studies on humans and rodents indicate that damage contributes to age-related loss of memory and deterioration of cognitive abilities. Rodents with a large amount of damage performed worse on tests of memory, and people with mild cognitive impairment and disease Alzheimer’s disease is observed more signs of DNA damage compared to healthy people. Moreover, the energy requirements of the brain can make the body more vulnerable than other tissues to the metabolic changes that occur with aging.
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Disruption in the own immunity of the Central nervous system
Disorders in the immune system often occur on the background of metabolic changes that occur with aging. Microglia is a kind of innate immunity of the Central nervous system performs many important tasks: it protects against pathogens, cleanses the cells and helps to maintain and reconstruct synapses. These inflammatory responses are protective, but long-term inflammation is harmful to the health of the brain. With age, microglia becomes more reactive, enhancing the inflammatory response in the brain while reducing the production of anti-inflammatory molecules. Studies in mice suggest that excessive activity of microglia can impair cognitive ability.
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Cognitive skills referred to as higher brain functions such as speech, thinking, attention, perception etc.
Violation processing protein
In the process of breaking cells recycle damaged proteins and molecules. However, this process is not perfect, and over time, the damaged molecules may accumulate in cells and interfere with their normal operation. So, in Alzheimer’s disease proteins accumulate inside the brain cells. The accumulation of proteins and other cellular components also contributes to cellular degeneration in a healthy brain. Although some changes in the brain, are normal, inevitable part of the aging process, this does not mean that we can’t control them. For example, the poor condition of the cardiovascular system probably contributes to the observed changes in the aging brain. On the other hand heart-healthy things — eating right, exercise and reduced stress can also benefit your brain with age.