Autumn is a transitional period between the warmest and coldest time of the year. With the onset of autumn, while our planet continues to move along the orbit, and the trees shed their colorful foliage, nights become longer and days shorter. This state of Affairs persists up to the winter solstice. Regardless of the date on the calendar in the Northern hemisphere, autumn begins with the autumnal equinox, which falls on September 22 or 23, and ends on 21 or 22 December, the winter solstice. But the inhabitants of the southern hemisphere greet autumn from March to June. However, this time of year is interesting not only a riot of colors and long nights. Offer you to get acquainted with some interesting facts about this cool season.
Why the days of equinox and solstice days fall on different dates?
So, first let’s see why last Monday, September 23, was special. The fact is that since September 23, 2019, the day of the autumnal equinox, began astronomical autumn. The sunmoving along the Ecliptic is the path of the motion of the star in its orbit during the year — transferred from Northern to the southern hemisphere. From this point nearly throughout the world except in some regions, day and night will last almost the same amount of hours. The equinox happens twice a year — in September and March. In the days of the equinox the Sun equally illuminates both hemispheres and about 12 hours is above and below the horizon.
The days of solstice also happens twice a year — summer and winter. Solstice is called the days of the year when the Sun rises on the smallest or the greatest height above the horizon. Thus, the winter solstice, which usually falls on 21 or 22 December, marks the shortest day and the longest night of the year. From now on, according to the astronomical calendar, in the Northern hemisphere winter comes, and in the southern hemisphere — summer.
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The reason why the days of equinox and solstice does not always fall on the same day, is that the Earth moves around the Sun not exactly 365 days, and 365, 25 days. To compensate for this discrepancy, for two millennia have been invented so-called “leap years”. Adding a “leap day” — February 29 — to the calendar every four years, humanity was able to maintain more or less continuous chronology.
People born in autumn live longer
A study developed by a group of scientists from the University of Chicago (USA) and published in the Journal of Aging Research, showed that children born in autumn are more likely to reach age 100 than those who were lucky enough to be born in another time of the year. There are many factors that affect a person’s life, including nutrition and physical activity, the presence or absence of bad habits, the environment etc. Now, according to the study, there is another factor that may play a key role in life expectancy: the month of birth.
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Scientists came to this conclusion after analyzing data from more than 1,500 people born between 1880 and 1895 years, the lifetime of which was 100 years or more, and then compared with a life expectancy of 12 thousand of their brothers, sisters and spouses. The results showed that 30% of American centenarians born between 1880-1895 years, born in the autumn months. As for the months with the lowest life expectancy is born in March, may and July live on 40% less centenarians.
Why autumn in Europe is different than in the US or Asia?
A careful observer will notice that the fall in North America and East Asia the leaves of the trees predominantly flashes a dark red color. In Europe, however, is dominated by shades of yellow and red colors are very rare. But why? Scientists believe that it may be associated with the evolution of deciduous trees over the last 35 million years. Mountain chain stretching from North to South, is dominated by North America and East Asia. During the last 35 million years, glacial periods alternated with warm.
So, the trees gradually stretched North and South along valleys and ridges to finally find a suitable place to live. As insect pests. It probably triggered an evolutionary arms race that has led to the emergence of the protective red pigment called anthocyanin. In Europe the mountain ranges are mostly oriented East-West. At this altitude, the trees and insects were in quarantine. If they were too cold, they just died. Thus, the production of anthocyanins were few, so few tree species during the evolution have gained a bright red hue.
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What is harvest Moon?
Closest to the autumn equinox is called the harvest full moon. The thing in the extraordinary brightness of the heavenly body in the day. Traditionally, the harvest moon gave farmers the opportunity to work late. Usually the harvest moon falls on September. This year she has brightened the night sky on Friday the 13th.