Availability of banana fruit is the most popular fruit in the world the danger of extinction, and match the scientists to use the techniques of genetic modification to save her, but to succeed they will have to overcome a bigger problem, namely the opposition faced by genetically modified crops in many countries.
Facing the banana plantations in Latin America and a major crisis at the moment, where the killer fungi which decimated the banana plantations in South-East Asia for 30 years has finally caused the occurrence of what scientists had feared since a long time, where they made their way to the farms of Latin America’s largest market for the export of bananas globally.
Declared the Agricultural Institute Colombian on August 8, the current that has been found on the fungus – from the strain Fusarium oxysporum Fusarium bearing the name of Tropical Race 4, which displays the test of the TR4 – in the farms north of the country and, accordingly, the state declared a state of emergency, began to destroy the crops, and activate the quarantine on the farms, in an attempt to avoid the spread of the fungus.
It should be noted that Latin America has suffered from this situation before, until the Fifties of the twentieth century, where it was more kinds of banana exported is the (Gros Michel) Gros Michel, which eliminated it completely due to another strain of the fungus Fusarium. After that the banana (Cavendish) Cavendish Place Gros Michel because he was resistant to the authority of the fungus Fusarium early.
According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization of the total world production of bananas up to 50 million tons of banana, the Cavendish every year, accounting for 99% of all banana exports worldwide, and removes most of it almost in Latin America.
Says Sarah Gore; Head of Department of Food Security (University of Exeter) Exeter University: “what we see today is a terrifying scenario almost, where we’ll probably breed a banana (Cavendish) also”.
She added: “discovered fungus(TR4) in Taiwan in 1989 and has spread throughout Southeast Asia, and has since expanded prevalence was found in Lebanon, India, Australia, and Africa. But so far Latin America has avoided the factors that lead to its spread completely.”
Says Dan Bieber and development; the senior lecturer in Biological Sciences at the University of Exeter also: “once the fungus (TR4) in the country are very difficult to get rid of them, where they live in the soil and can be spread on the tyres of agricultural machinery, boots or shoes not clean, or the spread of banana plants when suffering planted in different farms, once its presence in the soil, can remain idle for several years before that infects banana plants through their roots, and spreads in the tissues that deliver water and nutrients of the fruit”.
Added Bieber, “He exists now in Latin America, is likely to be more prevalent than is clear to US currently, it is required to control the spread of the fungus, where the ensure that any agent or visitor of the development of shoes and tires before entry to the site or exit it helps in reducing the spread of the fungus, as well as try to maintain the health of the soil, but did not succeed any state in the containment of the fungus TR4 successfully, in 1997, discovered in the Northern Territory of Australia, but the efforts of the Agricultural Quarantine force did not prevent it from spreading to the north of the state (Queensland) Queensland in 2015”.
Says Bieber also said: “We expect a rapid spread of very fungus in Latin America, so we must search for the types of banana New able to resist this fungus”.
Planting one type of banana has serious drawbacks:
While things look in Latin America troubling, but there is little hope, where the work is being done already to use the techniques of genetic modification such as the adjustment of (CRISPR) Crispr to develop a strain of banana, the Cavendish is resistant to a fungus TR4.
In 2018, explained the world of the living plant (James Dale) that it is possible to make genetic modification genetic editing in a safety banana Cavendish using a modification (CRISPR) Crispr genetic, and also provides in Norwich Norwich, United Kingdom a company called Tropic Biosciences experience using the modified Crispr to develop commercial varieties and high performance of banana resistant to fungus and soil.
It may also be possible to devise varieties of banana other hoping to create a strain resistant to a fungus TR4, and at the same time, be yummy enough for sale to consumers. But all of these efforts are still far from show promising results, however; in July 2018, announced the European Court of justice that the banana, which amends the genetically going to the list of illicit crops traded, after clarifying that crops modified using the technique of genetic modification Crispr will not be exempted from regulations that limit the sale of genetically modified crops.
Dozens of countries; including China, Russia, Japan, Australia, Brazil, the European Union, follow the law of discrimination, genetically modified food, and in the United States adhere to the food companies clearly marked “non-GMO” on their products, where the president signed the former Obama law requires marking of genetically modified foods in July 2016.
That shows the solution; the only option for Latin America is to try to overcome the crisis of the TR4. But he also notes Bieber; the TR4 is not the only challenge facing the cultivation of bananas. Where there is a fungal disease devastating the middle also in Latin America called (since Black) Black Sigatoka occurs as a result of fungal infection affects the leaves of banana can reduce the amount of fruit produced by the trees to the half -, as climate change causes the dryness of the farms, making it difficult for plants to grow.
It may be the only solution long-term – rather than search for an alternative to the safety of the Cavendish – is the recognition that the cultivation of one crop such a huge size is not considered something sustainable, where it says Bieber: “rethinking the production system as a whole is in fact what we have to do”.